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ScienceDaily: Latest Science News


Being treated unfairly at work increases risk of long-term sick leave
Many donor kidneys that are discarded may be suitable for transplantation
New mapping technique can help fight extreme poverty
Mindful yoga can reduce risky behaviors in troubled youth
Life of an albatross: Tackling individuality in studies of populations
Money-saving health plans do little to curb spending on unnecessary medical services
Recent research on causes of gun violence analyzed
Could death rates have swung the 2016 election?
Device makes power conversion more efficient
Discrimination harms your health, and your partner's, study shows
Smartphone case offers blood glucose monitoring on the go
The structure of cool: Researchers discover the unexpected atomic structure of cold and menthol sensor TRPM8
Suite of papers shed light on decade-long stem cell mystery
Brittle starfish shows how to make tough ceramics
Algae could feed and fuel planet with aid of new high-tech tool
Hope for autism: Optogenetics shines light on social interactions
Right-handed and left-handed molecules
Time matters: Does our biological clock keep cancer at bay?
'Obesity paradox' not found when measuring new cases of cardiovascular disease
New algorithm recognizes distinct dolphin clicks in underwater recordings
Monkey feel, monkey do: Microstimulation in premotor cortex can instruct movement
Why we can't always stop what we've started
Solar eclipse: Using adaptive optics to understand eye damage
CRISPR-Cas9 technique targeting epigenetics reverses disease in mice
Heart monitors on wild narwhals reveal alarming responses to stress
Revising the story of the dispersal of modern humans across Eurasia
Crafty crows know what it takes to make a good tool
Physiochemical 'fingerprint' of parasitic 'American murderer' uncovered
New compound stops progressive kidney disease in its tracks
Hydropower dam energy without sacrificing Mekong food supply: New research offers solution
Black holes' magnetism surprisingly wimpy
Mutations in neurons accumulate as we age; may explain normal cognitive decline and neurodegeneration
Researchers establish long-sought source of ocean methane
Atlas of developing human brain launched by researchers
Electrical stimulation in brain bypasses senses, instructs movement
Canola oil linked to worsened memory and learning ability in Alzheimer's
It's all in the ears: Inner ears of extinct sea monsters mirror those of today's animals
Mechanism identified behind enzyme involved in liver and other human cancers
Galaxy growth in a massive halo in the first billion years of cosmic history
Psychologist examines methods of classifying mental disorders
A spring-loaded sensor for cholesterol in cells
Scientist's accidental exhale leads to improved DNA detector
Scientists create stretchable battery made entirely out of fabric
Common fungus helps dengue virus thrive in mosquitoes
Innovative system images photosynthesis to provide picture of plant health
Number of genetic markers linked to lifespan triples
More than 1,000 ancient sealings discovered
Bacteria activate their own killer
How malaria tricks the immune system
New discovery, more bees mark Michigan's first, full bee census
Old rules apply in explaining extremely large magnetoresistance
Genes behind higher education linked to lower risk of Alzheimer’s
Night owls have larger social networks than early birds
Recreational drug users not what we think
Forests are the key to fresh water
Is there a musical method for interpreting speech?
New Lyme disease tests could offer quicker, more accurate detection
First line combination therapy improves progression-free survival in advanced lung cancer
Brain scans may reveal most effective anti-drug messages


Being treated unfairly at work increases risk of long-term sick leave



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 06:42 PM PST


Staff who feel they are treated unfairly at work are at increased risk of being off sick more frequently and for longer, according to new research.


Many donor kidneys that are discarded may be suitable for transplantation



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 03:26 PM PST


In an analysis of pairs of kidneys from the same donor in which one kidney was used but the other was discarded, the kidneys that were used tended to perform well. The majority of discarded kidneys could have potentially been transplanted with good outcomes.


New mapping technique can help fight extreme poverty



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 03:25 PM PST


A new mapping technique shows how researchers are developing computational tools that combine cellphone records with data from satellites and geographic information systems to create timely and incredibly detailed poverty maps. Unlike surveys or censuses, which can take years and cost millions of dollars, these maps can be generated quickly and cost-efficiently.


Mindful yoga can reduce risky behaviors in troubled youth



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 03:25 PM PST


Study shows a marked reduction in risky sex and substance abuse in troubled 18- to 24-year-olds after several months of participating in mindful yoga and positive coping strategies.


Life of an albatross: Tackling individuality in studies of populations



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 03:25 PM PST


Ecologists commonly round off the individuality of individuals, treating animals of the same species, sex, and age like identical units. But individual differences can have demographic effects on interpretation of data at the scale of whole populations, if due to an underlying variability in individual quality, not chance. Researchers examined in the peculiarities that make some wandering albatrosses more successful than others.


Money-saving health plans do little to curb spending on unnecessary medical services



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 01:07 PM PST


Claims for unnecessary medical services remain steady, despite changes in the insurance market designed to place more spending decisions in consumers' hands, report investigators. An increasingly common type of high-deductible insurance plan is touted for its money-saving potential, but a growing body of research indicates the plans don't motivate patients - or doctors - to curb spending on unnecessary medical services.


Recent research on causes of gun violence analyzed



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 01:07 PM PST


Consensus is growing in recent research evaluating the impact of right-to-carry concealed handgun laws, showing that they increase violent crime, despite what older research says.


Could death rates have swung the 2016 election?



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 12:45 PM PST


A new study shows that climbing mortality rates of middle-aged white people were associated with many counties voting Republican in the 2016 presidential election.


Device makes power conversion more efficient



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 12:45 PM PST


Researchers have presented a new design that, in tests, enabled gallium nitride power devices to handle voltages of 1,200 volts. That's already enough capacity for use in electric vehicles, but the researchers believe that further work can boost its capacity to the 3,300-to-5,000-volt range, to bring the efficiencies of gallium nitride to the power electronics in the electrical grid itself.


Discrimination harms your health, and your partner's, study shows



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 12:45 PM PST


Discrimination not only harms the health and well-being of the victim, but the victim's romantic partner as well, indicates new research.


Smartphone case offers blood glucose monitoring on the go



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 12:45 PM PST


Engineers have developed a smartphone case and app that could make it easier for patients to record and track their blood glucose readings, whether they're at home or on the go.


The structure of cool: Researchers discover the unexpected atomic structure of cold and menthol sensor TRPM8



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:18 AM PST


The first determination of the atomic structure of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), a molecular sensor in nerve ends that detects cold temperatures as well as menthol and other chemicals that induce cold sensations, has been made by scientists.


Suite of papers shed light on decade-long stem cell mystery



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:18 AM PST


A series of studies has shed light on vital, yet previously unclear, aspects of cell reprogramming.


Brittle starfish shows how to make tough ceramics



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:18 AM PST


Nature inspires innovation. An international team of scientists has discovered how a brittle star can create material like tempered glass underwater. The findings may open new bio-inspired routes for toughening brittle ceramics in various applications that span from optical lenses to automotive turbochargers and even biomaterial implants.


Algae could feed and fuel planet with aid of new high-tech tool



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:18 AM PST


Vast quantities of medicines and renewable fuels could be produced by algae using a new gene-editing technique, a study suggests.


Hope for autism: Optogenetics shines light on social interactions



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:17 AM PST


New research, using mice to identify a neural link between spatial learning and socialization, hints at new avenues to help people with autism and other social behavior disorders that affect their prefrontal cortex.


Right-handed and left-handed molecules



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:17 AM PST


The subtle properties of mirror molecules have been revealed by a new study. The researchers examined camphor photoionization using an ultrafast laser. Circularly polarized light directed at camphor molecules allowed the measurement of electron emission, giving the first precise measurement of the asymmetry in the reaction of a camphor molecule. It confirms that more electrons are emitted in one direction, but also leads to the discovery that they are emitted seven attoseconds earlier than in the opposite.


Time matters: Does our biological clock keep cancer at bay?



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:17 AM PST


Our body has an internal biological or 'circadian' clock, which cycles daily and is synchronized with solar time. New research done in mice suggests that it can help suppress cancer.


'Obesity paradox' not found when measuring new cases of cardiovascular disease



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:17 AM PST


Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for getting cardiovascular disease, a controversial body of research suggests that obesity may actually be associated with improved survival among people who have cardiovascular disease. However, a new study finds that the 'obesity paradox' is not present among people with new cases of cardiovascular disease.


New algorithm recognizes distinct dolphin clicks in underwater recordings



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:17 AM PST


Scientists have developed a new algorithm that can identify distinct dolphin click patterns among millions of clicks in recordings of wild dolphins. This approach could potentially help distinguish between dolphin species in the wild.


Monkey feel, monkey do: Microstimulation in premotor cortex can instruct movement



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:17 AM PST


Finding ways to get around those broken networks in the brain is an important area of research for those seeking to develop treatment interventions. Now researchers are showing in monkeys that stimulation delivered directly to the premotor cortex can elicit a feeling or experience that can instruct different movements, even when the stimulus is too small to induce any response directly.


Why we can't always stop what we've started



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:17 AM PST


When we try to stop a body movement at the last second, perhaps to keep ourselves from stepping on what we just realized was ice, we can't always do it -- and neuroscientists have figured out why.


Solar eclipse: Using adaptive optics to understand eye damage



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:17 AM PST


In a first-of-its-kind study, researchers are using adaptive optics (AO) to analyze retinal eye damage from the August solar eclipse on a cellular level. The research could help doctors develop a deeper understanding of this rare condition, called solar retinopathy, which has no currently accepted treatment.


CRISPR-Cas9 technique targeting epigenetics reverses disease in mice



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:17 AM PST


Scientists report a modified CRISPR-Cas9 technique that alters the activity, rather than the underlying sequence, of disease-associated genes. The researchers demonstrate that this technique can be used in mice to treat several different diseases.


Heart monitors on wild narwhals reveal alarming responses to stress



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:17 AM PST


Stress from human disturbances could cause behavioral responses in narwhals that are inconsistent with their physiological capacities, researchers say. They found that narwhals released after entanglement in nets and outfitted with heart monitors performed a series of deep dives, swimming hard to escape, while their heart rates dropped to unexpectedly low levels of three to four beats per minute.


Revising the story of the dispersal of modern humans across Eurasia



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:17 AM PST


Most people are now familiar with the traditional 'Out of Africa' model: modern humans evolved in Africa and then dispersed across Asia and reached Australia in a single wave about 60,000 years ago. However, technological advances in DNA analysis and other fossil identification techniques, as well as an emphasis on multidisciplinary research, are revising this story. Recent discoveries show that humans left Africa multiple times prior to 60,000 years ago, and that they interbred with other hominins in many locations across Eurasia.


Crafty crows know what it takes to make a good tool



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:17 AM PST


Biologists have discovered how New Caledonian crows make one of their most sophisticated tool designs -- sticks with a neatly shaped hooked tip. New Caledonian crows are the only species besides humans known to manufacture hooked tools in the wild. The study reveals how crows manage to fashion particularly efficient tools, with well-defined 'deep' hooks.


Physiochemical 'fingerprint' of parasitic 'American murderer' uncovered



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:17 AM PST


The physical and chemical 'fingerprint' profile of a parasitic worm, which infects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, has been uncovered by researchers -- a discovery that could allow for more effective and earlier treatment. They have captured detailed movies reproducing the process the worm goes through as it enters the body and sheds its skin allowing them to interrogate the worm surface and its sheath in unprecedented detail.


New compound stops progressive kidney disease in its tracks



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:17 AM PST


Researchers describe a new approach to prevent death in essential kidney cells during kidney disease. Studying multiple animal models of kidney disease, the team discovered a compound that can impede loss of the filtration cells and restore kidney function. The work, inspired by an investigation into a genetic form of the condition, has the potential to affect therapeutic research for millions of people suffering from progressive kidney diseases.


Hydropower dam energy without sacrificing Mekong food supply: New research offers solution



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:17 AM PST


Nearly 100 hydropower dams are planned for construction along tributaries off the Mekong River's 2,700-mile stretch. In a new article, researchers present a mathematical formula to balance power generation needs with the needs of fisheries downstream.


Black holes' magnetism surprisingly wimpy



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:16 AM PST


Black holes are famous for their muscle: an intense gravitational pull known to gobble up entire stars and launch streams of matter into space at almost the speed of light. It turns out the reality may not live up to the hype.


Mutations in neurons accumulate as we age; may explain normal cognitive decline and neurodegeneration



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:16 AM PST


Researchers used whole-genome sequencing of individual neurons and found strong evidence that brain mutations accumulate as we age. They also found that mutations accumulate at a higher rate in people with genetic premature aging disorders causing early brain degeneration.


Researchers establish long-sought source of ocean methane



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:16 AM PST


A significant amount of the methane naturally released into the atmosphere comes from the ocean. This has long puzzled scientists because there are no known methane-producing organisms near the ocean's surface. A team of researchers has made a discovery that could help to answer this 'ocean methane paradox.'


Atlas of developing human brain launched by researchers



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:16 AM PST


Scientists have taken the first step towards a comprehensive atlas of gene expression in cells across the developing human brain, making available new insights into how specific cells and gene networks contribute to building this most complex of organs, and serving as a resource for researchers around the world to study the interplay between these genetic programs and neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia.


Electrical stimulation in brain bypasses senses, instructs movement



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:16 AM PST


The brain's complex network of neurons enables us to interpret and effortlessly navigate and interact with the world around us. But when these links are damaged due to injury or stroke, critical tasks like perception and movement can be disrupted. New research is helping scientists figure out how to harness the brain's plasticity to rewire these lost connections, an advance that could accelerate the development of neuro-prosthetics.


Canola oil linked to worsened memory and learning ability in Alzheimer's



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:16 AM PST


Canola oil is one of the most widely consumed vegetable oils, yet little is known about its health effects. Now, a study links canola oil consumption in the diet with worsened memory, worsened learning ability and weight gain in mice which model Alzheimer's disease. It's the first study to suggest that canola oil is more harmful than healthful for the brain.


It's all in the ears: Inner ears of extinct sea monsters mirror those of today's animals



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:16 AM PST


A new study has revealed that an extinct group of marine reptiles called sauropterygians evolved similar inner ear proportions to those of some modern day aquatic reptiles and mammals.


Mechanism identified behind enzyme involved in liver and other human cancers



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:09 AM PST


To understand what has gone wrong when cancer occurs and to create new possibilities for treatment, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms behind what is happening at the cellular level. New research explains how the motor of an enzyme in DNA damage repair is switched on and off and how these processes might go awry in cancer.


Galaxy growth in a massive halo in the first billion years of cosmic history



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 11:07 AM PST


Observations of two galaxies made with the National Science Foundation-funded Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) radio telescope suggest that large galaxies formed faster than scientists had previously thought.


Psychologist examines methods of classifying mental disorders



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 10:22 AM PST


A new article presents the challenges in using three major diagnostic manuals from a scientific perspective and offer some recommendations for re-conceptualizing the mental disorders they describe.


A spring-loaded sensor for cholesterol in cells



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 10:22 AM PST


New research explains how an enzyme acts as a kind of thermostat that responds to and adjusts levels of cholesterol in the cell. This insight could lead to new strategies for combating high cholesterol.


Scientist's accidental exhale leads to improved DNA detector



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 09:59 AM PST


A novel nanoscale device has been developed for detecting DNA biomarkers. The device preconfines translocating molecules using an ultrathin nanoporous silicon nitride membrane separated from a single sensing nanopore by a nanoscale cavity. The membrane serves as a pre-filter and improves the DNA sensing capabilities of the nanopore in multiple ways.


Scientists create stretchable battery made entirely out of fabric



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 08:49 AM PST


Scientists have developed an entirely textile-based, bacteria-powered bio-battery that could one day be integrated into wearable electronics.


Common fungus helps dengue virus thrive in mosquitoes



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 08:49 AM PST


A species of fungus that lives in the gut of some Aedes aegypti mosquitoes increases the ability of dengue virus to survive in the insects, according to a study.


Innovative system images photosynthesis to provide picture of plant health



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 08:48 AM PST


Researchers have developed a new imaging system that is designed to monitor the health of crops in the field or greenhouse. The new technology could one day save farmers significant money and time by enabling intelligent agricultural equipment that automatically provides plants with water or nutrients at the first signs of distress.


Number of genetic markers linked to lifespan triples



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 08:48 AM PST


Researchers have studied 389,166 volunteers who gave DNA samples to the UK Biobank, US Health and Retirement Study and the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. In addition to confirming the eight genetic variants that had already been linked to longevity, this study found 17 more to expand the list of known variants affecting lifespan to 25 genes, with some sex-specific.


More than 1,000 ancient sealings discovered



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 07:25 AM PST


Classical scholars have discovered a large number of sealings in southeast Turkey. More than 1,000 sealings give new insights into the Greco-Roman pantheon. The finds were in a late antique building complex point to a hitherto unknown church.


Bacteria activate their own killer



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 07:25 AM PST


A new photothermal treatment could help to overcome antibiotic resistance. In this method, an agent transforms near-infrared light into local heating, which kills the pathogens. However, this 'transformer' must first be activated. In this case the target bacteria do this themselves. Other types of bacteria do not switch the agent on and remain unharmed.


How malaria tricks the immune system



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 07:24 AM PST


A possible defense in the battle against malaria has now been presented by a team of researchers.


New discovery, more bees mark Michigan's first, full bee census



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 07:24 AM PST


The first complete bee census in Michigan has confirmed a new species and revealed that the actual number of bee species in Michigan exceeded earlier estimates.


Old rules apply in explaining extremely large magnetoresistance



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 07:11 AM PST


Physicists compared similar materials and returned to a long-established rule of electron movement in their quest to explain the phenomenon of extremely large magnetoresistance (XMR).


Genes behind higher education linked to lower risk of Alzheimer’s



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 06:54 AM PST


Using genetic information, researchers provide new evidence that higher educational attainment is strongly associated with a lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease.


Night owls have larger social networks than early birds



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 06:53 AM PST


Using anonymous mobile phone data, researchers have tapped into patterns in people’s behavior. They have found out that our ‘chronotypes’ – our inherent periods of sleep during a 24-hour-period – correlate with the size of our social networks and how much we are in contact with others and also the kind of chronotypes with whom we interact.


Recreational drug users not what we think



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 06:50 AM PST


A researcher has been investigating why Australians are among the top users of illegal drugs in the world -- and has uncovered some revealing new facts about the motivations of recreational drug users.


Forests are the key to fresh water



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 06:50 AM PST


Freshwater resources are critical to both human civilization and natural ecosystems, but researchers have discovered that changes to ground vegetation can have as much of an impact on global water resources as climate change.


Is there a musical method for interpreting speech?



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 06:50 AM PST


Vocoded speech, or distorted speech that imitates voice transduction by a cochlear implant, is used throughout acoustic and auditory research to explore speech comprehension under various conditions. Researchers evaluated whether musicians had an advantage in understanding and reciting degraded speech as compared to nonmusicians.


New Lyme disease tests could offer quicker, more accurate detection



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 06:50 AM PST


New diagnostic methods offer a better chance for more accurate detection of the infection from the Lyme bacteria, the most common tick-borne infection in North America and Europe.


First line combination therapy improves progression-free survival in advanced lung cancer



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 06:49 AM PST


A new combination therapy for the first line treatment of advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) improves progression-free survival (PFS), according to results of a phase III IMpower150 trial.


Brain scans may reveal most effective anti-drug messages



Posted: 07 Dec 2017 06:49 AM PST


What if you could look into the brains of potential drug abusers and see what messages would be most likely to persuade them to 'just say no?' That's the ultimate goal of researchers whose new study scanned the brains of people while they watched anti-drug public service announcements.
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