ScienceDaily: Top Health News

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ScienceDaily: Top Health News


An RNA key that unlocks innate immunity
Simple, cost effective treatment following failed back surgery shows promise
Sidestepping the pitfalls of overconfidence with plausible deniability
Calm the immune system, halt premature birth
Insights on the effects of exercise on cognitive performance
Does open heart surgery affect cognitive abilities?
Fat: A new player expands our definition of diabetes
Oscillations provide insights into the brain's navigation system
Cancer stem cells use normal genes in abnormal ways
A new way to create molecules for drug development
Shedding light on gene variants and their connections to health and disease
How the grid cell system of the brain maps mental spaces
'Vampire burial' reveals efforts to prevent child's return from grave
Ketogenic diet appears to prevent cognitive decline in mice, study finds
Clues that suggest people are lying may be deceptive, study shows
Early changes to synapse gene regulation may cause Alzheimer's disease
Why don't we understand statistics? Fixed mindsets may be to blame
Effects of a high-fat diet may be passed on for three generations
Widespread errors in 'proofreading' cause inherited blindness
Caesarean section use has almost doubled globally since 2000
How parenting affects antisocial behaviors in children
Photoactive bacteria bait may help in fight against MRSA infections
Fake or real? New study finds consumers wary of manipulated photos
Cells involved in allergies also play a key role in survival
Human brain cell transplant offers insights into neurological conditions
What pneumococcus says to make you sick
Computational model links family members using genealogical and law-enforcement databases
The metabolome: A way to measure obesity and health beyond BMI
Mouse pups with same-sex parents born in China using stem cells and gene editing
Human retinas grown in a dish explain how color vision develops
New microscope offers 4-D look at embryonic development in living mice
Genetic Achilles heel hurts humans fighting hepatitis C
DNA vaccine against Ebola virus shows potent and long-term efficacy in preclinical studies


An RNA key that unlocks innate immunity



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 12:16 PM PDT


New research shows that a versatile RNA molecule may be a key player in human cells' frontline defenses against viruses.


Simple, cost effective treatment following failed back surgery shows promise



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 10:53 AM PDT


Failed back surgery (continued low back and leg pain after surgery) is relatively common. With each reoperation, success, as defined by pain reduction, becomes less likely and most patients do not improve. However, preliminary studies using a simple procedure to remove scar tissue or adhesions suggests a new treatment could help those with post-surgical, chronic low back pain.


Sidestepping the pitfalls of overconfidence with plausible deniability



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 10:53 AM PDT


Although confidence can serve as both a blessing and a curse, new research shows how people can reap the rewards without risking the social penalties for overconfidence.


Calm the immune system, halt premature birth



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 08:50 AM PDT


Cytokines, small proteins that alert the body to infection and cause inflammation, have been found in the amniotic fluid of many women who gave birth prematurely. Now, researchers are looking into whether halting the immune response will stop preterm births.


Insights on the effects of exercise on cognitive performance



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 08:02 AM PDT


A new study has looked at the details behind how cognitive performance may improve during aerobic exercise.


Does open heart surgery affect cognitive abilities?



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 08:02 AM PDT


Understanding how heart valve surgery may affect your cognition is important for older adults. To learn more, researchers reviewed studies to see how patients' cognition changed before and after heart valve surgery. They also looked at whether surgeries on two types of heart valves, the mitral or the aortic, were associated with better or worse outcomes.


Fat: A new player expands our definition of diabetes



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 08:02 AM PDT


Type 2 diabetes is reaching epidemic proportions around the world. The World Health Organization reports that more than 422 million people suffer from the disease, including over 1.2 million in Australia alone. The consequences of diabetes can be dire (cancer, kidney failure, and heart attacks) and its prevalence is rising fast. There is an urgent need to better understand how diabetes progresses -- and how it might be stopped.


Oscillations provide insights into the brain's navigation system



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 08:02 AM PDT


The brain creates a map of our environment, which enables reliable spatial navigation. The Nobel Prize was awarded in 2014 for research into how this navigation system works at the cellular level. Researchers have now shown that the characteristics of this navigation system are also present in brain oscillations that can be measured using depth electrodes in the human brain. The possibility of testing the neuronal navigation system in this way may open up new approaches for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.


Cancer stem cells use normal genes in abnormal ways



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 08:01 AM PDT


An new study shows that CDK1 directly interacts with Sox2 to keep cancer cells 'stemmy.'


A new way to create molecules for drug development



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 07:22 AM PDT


Chemists have developed a new and improved way to generate molecules that can enable the design of new types of synthetic drugs.


Shedding light on gene variants and their connections to health and disease



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 07:22 AM PDT


NIH's Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) and ClinVar programs are addressing a major barrier to incorporating genomic medicine into healthcare, which is a lack of evidence about the relationship between gene variants and diseases. A special issue of Human Mutation highlights the broad array of advances made through these programs, which work in concert to advance knowledge connecting human genomic variation to human health.


How the grid cell system of the brain maps mental spaces



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 07:22 AM PDT


How exactly the grid cell system works in the human brain, and in particular with which temporal dynamics, has until now been speculation. A much-discussed possibility is that the signals from these cells create maps of 'cognitive spaces' in which humans mentally organize and store the complexities of their internal and external environments. A team of scientists has now been able to demonstrate, with electrophysiological evidence, the existence of grid-like activity in the human brain.


'Vampire burial' reveals efforts to prevent child's return from grave



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 06:30 AM PDT


Archaeologists found the remains of a 10-year-old child with a stone inserted into his or her mouth at a fifth-century Italian cemetery. They think the stone was meant to keep the child from rising from the dead and spreading malaria to the living.


Ketogenic diet appears to prevent cognitive decline in mice, study finds



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 06:29 AM PDT


The Ketogenic Diet, simple caloric restriction, or the pharmaceutical rapamycin appear to improve neurovascular function and prevent cognitive decline in animal models.


Clues that suggest people are lying may be deceptive, study shows



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 06:29 AM PDT


The verbal and physical signs of lying are harder to detect than people believe, a study suggests.


Early changes to synapse gene regulation may cause Alzheimer's disease



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 06:29 AM PDT


New research has revealed a role for splicing proteins in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Increased phosphorylation of the SRRM2 protein, seen in AD mouse models and human patients, was found to block its transport to the nucleus. This reduced levels of the PQBP1 protein, causing abnormal changes to the splicing of synapse genes and cognitive decline. These phenotypes were reversed by restoring PQBP1 function, suggesting a possible future treatment for AD.


Why don't we understand statistics? Fixed mindsets may be to blame



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 05:27 AM PDT


The first study of why people struggle to solve statistical problems reveals a preference for complicated rather than simpler, more intuitive solutions -- which often leads to failure in solving the problem altogether. The researchers suggest this is due to unfavorable methods of teaching statistics in schools and universities, and highlight the serious consequences when applied to professional settings like court cases.


Effects of a high-fat diet may be passed on for three generations



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 05:27 AM PDT


A high-fat diet in female mice affects their offspring's obesity, insulin resistance and addictive-like behaviors for three generations, according to a new study.


Widespread errors in 'proofreading' cause inherited blindness



Posted: 12 Oct 2018 05:27 AM PDT


Research has shown that mistakes in 'proofreading' the genetic code of retinal cells is the cause of a form of inherited blindness, retinitis pigmentosa (RP) with splicing factor defects, which affects up to 2.5 million people worldwide.


Caesarean section use has almost doubled globally since 2000



Posted: 11 Oct 2018 04:06 PM PDT


Globally, the number of babies born through caesarean section (C-section) almost doubled between 2000 and 2015 -- from 12% to 21% of all births. While the life-saving surgery is still unavailable for many women and children in low-income countries and regions, the procedure is overused in many middle- and high-income settings.


How parenting affects antisocial behaviors in children



Posted: 11 Oct 2018 02:31 PM PDT


In a recent study of the parental caregiving environment, researchers found that within identical twin pairs, the child who experienced harsher behavior and less parental warmth was at a greater risk for developing antisocial behaviors.


Photoactive bacteria bait may help in fight against MRSA infections



Posted: 11 Oct 2018 02:31 PM PDT


Researchers are testing whether a light-active version of heme, the molecule responsible for transporting oxygen in blood circulation, may help people infected with MRSA. Photodynamic therapy, or PDT, involves a compound known as a photosensitizer, which can be activated by visible light to kill diseased cells or bacteria. PDT is a clinically proven method for fighting cancer but has not yet been developed for treating MRSA infections.


Fake or real? New study finds consumers wary of manipulated photos



Posted: 11 Oct 2018 02:31 PM PDT


In the age of fake news and doctored photos, wary consumers are not nearly as gullible as one might presume. But the source of the images does not matter much as people evaluate what is fake and what is real, a study suggests.


Cells involved in allergies also play a key role in survival



Posted: 11 Oct 2018 11:31 AM PDT


Mast cells, an important group of immune cells typically associated with allergies, actually enable the body to survive fasting or intense exercise, new research shows.


Human brain cell transplant offers insights into neurological conditions



Posted: 11 Oct 2018 11:31 AM PDT


Scientists have created a 'window' into the brain, which enables researchers to watch in incredible detail how human brain cells develop and connect to each other in real time.


What pneumococcus says to make you sick



Posted: 11 Oct 2018 11:31 AM PDT


Researchers have identified a molecule that plays a key role in bacterial communication and infection. Their findings add a new word to pneumococcus' molecular dictionary and may lead to novel ways to manipulate the bacteria and prevent infection.


Computational model links family members using genealogical and law-enforcement databases



Posted: 11 Oct 2018 11:31 AM PDT


Researchers are reporting ways in which using genetic ancestry databases to solve crimes could potentially be expanded.


The metabolome: A way to measure obesity and health beyond BMI



Posted: 11 Oct 2018 11:31 AM PDT


The current standard for determining obesity is body mass index (BMI), a simple mathematical formula that uses weight and height. A new study looks at both the metabolome and the genome, and their relationship to BMI.


Mouse pups with same-sex parents born in China using stem cells and gene editing



Posted: 11 Oct 2018 11:31 AM PDT


Researchers were able to produce healthy mice with two mothers that went on to have normal offspring of their own. Mice from two dads were also born but only survived for a couple of days. The work looks at what makes it so challenging for animals of the same sex to produce offspring and suggests that some of these barriers can be overcome using stem cells and targeted gene editing.


Human retinas grown in a dish explain how color vision develops



Posted: 11 Oct 2018 11:31 AM PDT


Biologists grew human retina tissue from scratch to determine how cells that allow people to see in color are made.


New microscope offers 4-D look at embryonic development in living mice



Posted: 11 Oct 2018 11:31 AM PDT


With the development of an adaptive, multi-view light sheet microscope and a suite of computational tools, researchers have captured the first view of early organ development inside the mouse embryo.


Genetic Achilles heel hurts humans fighting hepatitis C



Posted: 11 Oct 2018 11:31 AM PDT


An antimicrobial signaling molecule called interferon lambda 4 has lower activity against the hepatitis C virus in the vast majority of humans compared with chimpanzees and African hunter-gatherer Pygmies, according to a new study.


DNA vaccine against Ebola virus shows potent and long-term efficacy in preclinical studies



Posted: 10 Oct 2018 10:24 AM PDT


A novel synthetic DNA vaccine developed based on technology pioneered and offers complete protection from Zaire Ebolavirus (EBOV) infection in promising preclinical research.
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