ScienceDaily: Top News

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ScienceDaily: Top News


Exploring a world without food animals
Routing gene therapy directly into brain
Parents' reports of children's autism symptoms differ by ethnicity
Seeing through walls of unknown materials
3-D mini brains accelerate research for repairing brain function
NASA's SuperTIGER balloon flies again to study heavy cosmic particles
Scientists craft world's tiniest interlinking chains
Combating eye injuries with a reversible superglue seal
Drones more damaging than bird strikes to planes, study finds
Heavy metal: How first supernovae altered early star formation
Novel regulation of gene expression in brain tumors identified
Plug-in hybrid vehicles are better than their reputation
When a common cold may trigger early supportive care
Some video games are good for older adults' brains
Birth of a storm in the Arabian Sea validates climate model
Reading on electronic devices may interfere with science reading comprehension
Satellite tracking provides clues about South Atlantic sea turtles' 'lost years'
Decades-past logging still threatens spotted owls in national forests
DNA-origami surpasses important thresholds
Unique field survey yields first big-picture view of deep-sea food webs
Optimal amount of rainfall for plants
CLOCK gene may hold answers to human brain evolution
Healthy mitochondria could stop Alzheimer's
More-severe climate model predictions could be the most accurate
Synchrotron sheds light on the amphibious lifestyle of a new raptorial dinosaur
Clay minerals on Mars may have formed in primordial steam bath
Living on thin air -- microbe mystery solved
ALMA finds massive primordial galaxies swimming in vast ocean of dark matter
The world's smallest Mona Lisa
Deadly cryptococcal fungi found in public spaces in South Africa
Wheat gets boost from purified nanotubes
Scientists observe supermassive black hole in infant universe
Researchers 3-D print lifelike artificial organ models
A South American amphibian could potentially hold the key to curing cirrhosis
United States has lost dominance in highly intense, ultrafast laser technology to Europe and Asia, new report finds
It's good to be rare, for some species
Controlling spin for memory storage
Invasive 'supervillain' crab can eat through its gills
High prevalence of bacteria that carry gene mcr-1 in ecosystem, study shows
What's that smell? The advantage of sniffing
Psychosis incidence highly variable internationally
Abnormal electrocardiogram findings are common in NBA players
Alzheimer's damage in mice reduced with compound that targets APOE gene
Unearthing the underground effects of earthquakes and volcanoes
New method helps identify causal mechanisms in depression
What makes a happy working mom?
How does it look when Earth is bombarded with dark matter?
Humans at maximum limits for height, lifespan and physical performance, study suggests
Bioelectronic 'nose' can detect food spoilage by sensing the smell of death
Go with the flow (or against it)
Turning beer into fuel
Marshmallow-like silicone gels used as insulation in containers for cryopreserved embryos
New species discovered in Malaysian rainforest during unprecedented, top-to-bottom survey
Dibenzoazepine defender: Drug found to be effective against resistant hepatitis C
How the oldest compound eyes were constructed
Litte Foot takes a bow
How ribosomes shape the proteome
Exposure to wildfire smoke in utero lowers birthweight
Youth who experience violent victimization seek intimate relationships at an earlier age
Nanomaterials: How to separate linear and ring-shaped molecules


Exploring a world without food animals



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 07:22 PM PST


What would happen if U.S. farmers stopped producing animals for food and Americans went vegan? Some have called for a move in that direction to address increasing concerns about U.S. health, eating habits, and climate change. Researchers recently explored those questions and found surprising results.


Routing gene therapy directly into brain



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 02:42 PM PST


A new technique, which could be used to transplant donor-matched hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) or a patient's own genetically-engineered HSCs into the brain, has been revealed by scientists in a new report.


Parents' reports of children's autism symptoms differ by ethnicity



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 01:23 PM PST


Racial differences in parents' reports of concerns about their child's development to healthcare providers may contribute to delayed diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in black children, according to a study.


Seeing through walls of unknown materials



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 01:23 PM PST


Researchers have devised a way to see through walls without any advance knowledge of what the walls are made out of. Besides having obvious applications in the realm of security, the approach could lead to inexpensive devices to help construction workers easily locate conduits, pipes and wires.


3-D mini brains accelerate research for repairing brain function



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 01:23 PM PST


Hospitals are making mini brains from human stem cells, putting researchers on a fast track to repair the nervous system after injury or disease of the brain and spinal cord. Researchers have developed a new system to reduce the time it takes to grow these brain models, which will give them the ability to screen drugs and study what's behind disease-causing mutations more quickly.


NASA's SuperTIGER balloon flies again to study heavy cosmic particles



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 01:22 PM PST


A science team in Antarctica is preparing to fly SuperTIGER, a balloon-borne instrument designed to collect heavy high-energy particles from beyond the solar system that constantly bombard Earth's atmosphere.


Scientists craft world's tiniest interlinking chains



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 01:22 PM PST


For decades, scientists have been trying to make a true molecular chain: a repeated set of tiny rings interlocked together. Researchers have announced and confirmed a method to craft such a molecular chain.


Combating eye injuries with a reversible superglue seal



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 11:24 AM PST


Scientists and engineers have developed a reversible, on-the-spot, temperature-sensitive gel that could seal eye injuries on the battlefield.


Drones more damaging than bird strikes to planes, study finds



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 11:24 AM PST


A new study focused on unmanned aerial systems is helping quantify the dangers associated with drones sharing airspace with planes.


Heavy metal: How first supernovae altered early star formation



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 11:23 AM PST


An international team of researchers ran multi-scale, multi-physics 2-D and 3-D simulations to illustrate how heavy metals expelled from exploding supernovae held the first stars in the universe regulate subsequent star formation and influence the appearance of galaxies in the process.


Novel regulation of gene expression in brain tumors identified



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 11:23 AM PST


New study results reveal a previously unknown interplay between two key enzymes and a novel understanding of how brain cancer tumors form and spread.


Plug-in hybrid vehicles are better than their reputation



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 11:19 AM PST


Hybrid vehicles are often considered the fig leaf of electric mobility. However, plug-in hybrids with a real electric range of about 60 km drive the same number of kilometers electrically as battery electric vehicles. Hence, their carbon dioxide reduction potential also is the same. This is the result of a comparison of battery and plug-in hybrid vehicles in Germany and the US.


When a common cold may trigger early supportive care



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 11:16 AM PST


A new study shows that in infants who were born severely premature, human rhinovirus infections appear to trigger airway hyper-reactivity, which leads to wheezing, hyperinflation and more severe respiratory disease.


Some video games are good for older adults' brains



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 11:16 AM PST


Playing 3D-platform video games on a regular basis may improve cognitive functions in seniors and increase grey matter in a brain structure called the hippocampus, a new study suggests.


Birth of a storm in the Arabian Sea validates climate model



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 11:16 AM PST


Extreme cyclones that formed in the Arabian Sea for the first time in 2014 are the result of global warming and will likely increase in frequency, warn scientists. Their model showed that the burning of fossil fuels since 1860 would lead to an increase in the destructive storms in the Arabian Sea by 2015, marking one of the first times that modeled projections have synchronized with real observations of storm activity.


Reading on electronic devices may interfere with science reading comprehension



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 11:16 AM PST


People who often read on electronic devices may have a difficult time understanding scientific concepts, according to researchers. They suggest that this finding, among others in the study, could also offer insights on how reading a scientific text differs from casual reading.


Satellite tracking provides clues about South Atlantic sea turtles' 'lost years'



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 11:16 AM PST


Biologists have been tracking the movements of sea turtle yearlings in the South Atlantic Ocean, and have come up with some surprising results.


Decades-past logging still threatens spotted owls in national forests



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 11:16 AM PST


Logging of the largest trees in the Sierra Nevada's national forests ended in the early 1990s after agreements were struck to protect species' habitat. But new research by ecologists shows that spotted owls, one of the iconic species logging restrictions were meant to protect, have continued to experience population declines in the forests.


DNA-origami surpasses important thresholds



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 11:16 AM PST


It is the double strands of our genes that make them so strong. Using a technique known as DNA origami, biophysicists have been building nanometer-scale objects for several years. Now scientists have not only broken out of the nanometer realm to build larger objects, but have also cut the production costs a thousand-fold. These innovations open a whole new frontier for the technology.


Unique field survey yields first big-picture view of deep-sea food webs



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 11:16 AM PST


A new article documents the first comprehensive study of deep-sea food webs, using hundreds of video observations of animals caught in the act of feeding off the Central California coast. The study shows that deep-sea jellies are key predators, and provides new information on how deep-sea animals interact with life near the ocean surface.


Optimal amount of rainfall for plants



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 11:16 AM PST


Researchers have determined what could be considered a 'Goldilocks' climate for rainfall use by plants: not too wet and not too dry. But those landscapes are likely to shrink and become less productive in the future through climate change.


CLOCK gene may hold answers to human brain evolution



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 11:16 AM PST


A gene controlling our biological clocks plays a vital role in regulating human-specific genes important to brain evolution. These findings open new paths of research into how CLOCK proteins produced by the CLOCK gene affect brain function and the processes by which neurons find their proper place in the brain.


Healthy mitochondria could stop Alzheimer's



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 10:25 AM PST


Using a bioinformatics and experimental approach, scientists have found that rendering mitochondria resistant to damage can halt diseases caused by amyloid toxicity, such as Alzheimer's disease.


More-severe climate model predictions could be the most accurate



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 10:22 AM PST


The climate models that project greater amounts of warming this century are the ones that best align with observations of the current climate, according to a article. Their findings suggest that the models used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, on average, may be underestimating future warming.


Synchrotron sheds light on the amphibious lifestyle of a new raptorial dinosaur



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 10:22 AM PST


A well-preserved dinosaur skeleton from Mongolia unites an unexpected combination of features that defines a new group of semi-aquatic predators related to Velociraptor. Detailed 3-D synchrotron analysis allowed an international team of researchers to present the bizarre 75-million-year-old predator, named Halszkaraptor escuilliei. The study not only describes a new genus and species of bird-like dinosaur that lived in Mongolia but also sheds light on an unexpected amphibious lifestyle for raptorial dinosaurs.


Clay minerals on Mars may have formed in primordial steam bath



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 10:22 AM PST


New research suggests that the bulk of clay minerals on Mars could have been formed as the planet's crust cooled and solidified, not by later interactions with water on the surface as has long been assumed.


Living on thin air -- microbe mystery solved



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 10:22 AM PST


Scientists have discovered that microbes in Antarctica have a previously unknown ability to scavenge hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from the air to stay alive in the extreme conditions. The find has implications for the search for life on other planets, suggesting extraterrestrial microbes could also rely on trace atmospheric gases for survival.


ALMA finds massive primordial galaxies swimming in vast ocean of dark matter



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 10:20 AM PST


New observations push back the epoch of massive-galaxy formation even further by identifying two giant galaxies seen when the universe was only 780 million years old, or about 5 percent its current age.


The world's smallest Mona Lisa



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 10:20 AM PST


New techniques in DNA self-assembly allow researchers to create the largest to-date customizable patterns with nanometer precision on a budget.


Deadly cryptococcal fungi found in public spaces in South Africa



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 10:20 AM PST


Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii have been found large numbers on trees in South Africa.


Wheat gets boost from purified nanotubes



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 10:20 AM PST


Researchers test the effects of carbon nanotubes on the growth of wheatgrass. While some showed no effect, purified single-walled nanotubes dispersed in water enhanced the plants' growth, while the same nanotubes in an organic solvent retarded their development.


Scientists observe supermassive black hole in infant universe



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 10:19 AM PST


A team of astronomers has detected the most distant supermassive black hole ever observed. The black hole sits in the center of an ultrabright quasar and presents a puzzle as to how such a huge object could have grown so quickly.


Researchers 3-D print lifelike artificial organ models



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 09:26 AM PST


A team of researchers has 3-D printed lifelike artificial organ models that mimic the exact anatomical structure, mechanical properties, and look and feel of real organs. These patient-specific organ models, which include integrated soft sensors, can be used for practice surgeries to improve surgical outcomes in thousands of patients worldwide.


A South American amphibian could potentially hold the key to curing cirrhosis



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 09:26 AM PST


The unique liver function of a South American amphibian, Siphonops annulatus, could pave the way to finding a cure to the devastating liver condition cirrhosis, according to a new study.


United States has lost dominance in highly intense, ultrafast laser technology to Europe and Asia, new report finds



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 09:26 AM PST


The U.S. is losing ground in a second laser revolution of highly intense, ultrafast lasers that have broad applications in manufacturing, medicine, and national security, says a new report. Currently, 80 percent to 90 percent of the high-intensity laser systems are overseas, and all of the highest power research lasers currently in construction or already built are overseas as well.


It's good to be rare, for some species



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 09:25 AM PST


For many species, rarity is not a guarantee of impending extinction. Instead, the traits that enable some species to be rare may hold the ticket to their survival. A new paper predicts what these traits might be and how having them could place chronically rare species at an advantage during crises.


Controlling spin for memory storage



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 09:25 AM PST


Researchers have learned how to manipulation of a material's magnetism, making room for faster magnetic memory devices.


Invasive 'supervillain' crab can eat through its gills



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 09:25 AM PST


Invasive green shore crabs can 'eat' by absorbing nutrients across its gills -- the first demonstration of this ability in crustaceans -- scientists have found.


High prevalence of bacteria that carry gene mcr-1 in ecosystem, study shows



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 09:25 AM PST


Bacteria that carry the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 commonly exist in human and various types of food and environmental samples collected from Hong Kong and the Chinese mainland. The prevalence of mcr-1 in our ecosystem challenges the role of colistin as the last resort antibiotic to treat infections caused by carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae, say researchers.


What's that smell? The advantage of sniffing



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 09:25 AM PST


Breathe in through your nose, and chances are you will feel the air coming in and also smell something nearby. Researchers have discovered how these sensations are kept separate and why sniffing can help identify odors, two problems that have puzzled scientists for years. The study used a system in mice that systematically controls airflow and odor delivery.


Psychosis incidence highly variable internationally



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 09:25 AM PST


Rates of psychosis can be close to eight times higher in some regions compared to others, finds a new study.


Abnormal electrocardiogram findings are common in NBA players



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 09:25 AM PST


About 1 in 5 professional basketball players had abnormalities on their electrocardiograms (ECGs), some but not all of which were explained by changes in the shape and size of their hearts as a result of athletic training.


Alzheimer's damage in mice reduced with compound that targets APOE gene



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 09:25 AM PST


People who carry the APOE4 genetic variant face a substantial risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Now, researchers have identified a compound that targets the APOE protein in the brains of mice and protects against damage induced by the Alzheimer's protein amyloid beta. The findings indicate that APOE could potentially be a real target for treatment or prevention.


Unearthing the underground effects of earthquakes and volcanoes



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 09:25 AM PST


Researchers analyzed high-resolution seismic velocity data from 36 seismograph stations across the island of Kyushu to identify variations before, during, and after the MW 7.0 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. Velocity decreased in the region of the rupture fault when the earthquake struck, and then gradually recovered, although this recovery showed spatial variability. This variability corresponded to aftershock concentration and volcanic activity. The findings may be useful for disaster prediction and preparedness.


New method helps identify causal mechanisms in depression



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 09:25 AM PST


People with major depressive disorder have alterations in the activity and connectivity of brain systems underlying reward and memory, according to a new study. The findings provide clues as to which regions of the brain could be at the root of symptoms, such as reduced happiness and pleasure, in depression.


What makes a happy working mom?



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 09:25 AM PST


A happy working mom feels competent in interacting with her child, experiences a sense of freedom and choice in her actions, while having a warm and affectionate relationship with her baby. She is also not too hard on herself about how she is faring as a mother.


How does it look when Earth is bombarded with dark matter?



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 09:25 AM PST


A whole lot of zig-zagging: Perhaps that is what happens when the universe's mysterious dark matter particles hit the Earth. Researchers can now show through simulations how it might look.


Humans at maximum limits for height, lifespan and physical performance, study suggests



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 09:25 AM PST


Newly emerging trends in data suggests humans may have reached their maximum limits for height, lifespan and physical performance. These biological limitations may be affected by anthropogenic impacts on the environment - including climate change - which could have a deleterious effect on these limits. This review is the first of its kind spanning 120 years worth of historical information, while considering the effects of both genetic and environmental parameters.


Bioelectronic 'nose' can detect food spoilage by sensing the smell of death



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 09:24 AM PST


Strong odors are an indicator that food has gone bad, but there could soon be a new way to sniff foul smells earlier on. As reported in ACS Nano, researchers have developed a bioelectronic


Go with the flow (or against it)



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 09:24 AM PST


Researchers are using magnetic fields to influence a specific type of bacteria to swim against strong currents, opening up the potential of using the microscopic organisms for drug delivery in environments with complex microflows- - like the human bloodstream.


Turning beer into fuel



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 07:01 AM PST


Chemists have made the first steps towards making sustainable fuel using beer as a key ingredient, outlines a new report.


Marshmallow-like silicone gels used as insulation in containers for cryopreserved embryos



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 07:01 AM PST


As the genetic modification of mice is increasingly used in medical and biological research, so too is the need for an efficient way to transport cryopreserved embryos and sperm.


New species discovered in Malaysian rainforest during unprecedented, top-to-bottom survey



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 07:01 AM PST


This fall, the California Academy of Sciences partnered with The Habitat Penang Hill and colleagues to conduct a rainforest survey on Malaysia's island state of Penang. A 117-member team documented flora and fauna from the tops of trees to the dark reaches of caves and discovered several species previously unknown to science living just miles from a major metropolis. Survey results will contribute to this ancient rainforest's nomination as a UNESCO biosphere reserve.


Dibenzoazepine defender: Drug found to be effective against resistant hepatitis C



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 07:01 AM PST


Researchers have identified a class of chemicals that can combat resistant strains of the hepatitis C virus, as well as parasites that cause malaria and toxoplasmosis.


How the oldest compound eyes were constructed



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 07:01 AM PST


Researchers have discovered that the compound eyes of today's insects and crustaceans are still constructed in much the same way as they were in their extinct ancestors 500 million years ago. The research team looked at fossil trilobites. However, these arthropods lacked the lenses of contemporary compound eyes.


Litte Foot takes a bow



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 07:01 AM PST


Little Foot is the only known virtually complete Australopithecus fossil discovered to date. It is by far the most complete skeleton of a human ancestor older than 1.5 million years ever found. It is also the oldest fossil hominid in southern Africa, dating back 3.67 million years. For the first time ever, the completely cleaned and reconstructed skeleton was viewed by the national and international media.


How ribosomes shape the proteome



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 07:01 AM PST


Cells are crowded with macromolecules, which limits the diffusion of proteins, especially in prokaryotic cells without active transport in the cytoplasm. While investigating the relationship between crowding, ionic strength and protein diffusion, biochemists made a fascinating discovery: positively charged proteins stick to the surface of ribosome complexes. This explains why most water-soluble proteins carry an overall negative charge.


Exposure to wildfire smoke in utero lowers birthweight



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 06:22 AM PST


Economics researchers capitalize on the dynamics of wildfires to prove infants’ proximity to smoke pollution while in utero affects birthweight.


Youth who experience violent victimization seek intimate relationships at an earlier age



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 06:22 AM PST


Experiencing violence as an adolescent leads to early romantic relationships and cohabitating, research concludes. On average, they found that victimized youth entered romantic relationships nine months earlier than non-victimized youth.


Nanomaterials: How to separate linear and ring-shaped molecules



Posted: 06 Dec 2017 06:21 AM PST


What is the difference between linear chains and rings composed of the same material? The molecular building blocks are identical, but from a mathematical point of view the two structures have distinct topologies, namely ring and linear chain. This difference is readily recognizable on a macroscopic scale, as for example a golden ring and a gold bar, but represents a tricky task on the microscopic scale.
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