ScienceDaily: Top News

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ScienceDaily: Top News


Think chimpanzee beds are dirtier than human ones? Think again
The mystery of lime-green lizard blood
Three gallons of radioactive tank waste vitrified last month
Alternative treatment for mild asthma
The opioid epidemic has boosted the number of organs available for transplant
Cannabidiol significantly reduces seizures in patients with severe form of epilepsy
Climate change impacts fragile river ecosystems
Diverse and abundant megafauna documented at new Atlantic US Marine National Monument
Climate change in Quebec equals a much greater diversity of species???
Major shifts in global freshwater
Rising emissions of ozone-destroying chemical banned by Montreal Protocol
Europium points to new suspect in continental mystery
Scientists predict how 686 marine species' habitats may shift in response to warming seas
Natural regeneration or tree-planting? Study points to bias in forest restoration studies
Early evidence of use of a bit on domestic donkeys found in the Near East
Novel therapy inhibits complement to preserve neurons and reduce inflammation after stroke
Whole-tree logging may not hinder plant biodiversity
Individualized ovarian, brain cancer therapies
Bitcoin estimated to use half a percent of the world's electric energy by end of 2018
Evidence for stars forming just 250 million years after Big Bang
How the gut influences neurologic disease
Exploration of diverse bacteria signals big advance for gene function prediction
Quarks feel the pressure in the proton
New nuclear RNA retention activity discovered
An electronic rescue dog
Researchers control the properties of graphene transistors using pressure
Glass-forming ability: Fundamental understanding leading to smart design
A simple software error corrected: Bittersweet chloroplast genome becomes the model
Diagnosing breast cancer with an imaging pill
Beef peptides block bitter tastes
Intimacy in later life does not slow memory loss
Wearable technology and AI to predict the onset of health problems
New research could improve efficiency and luminance of TV and smartphone displays
Climate change should help Midwest corn production through 2050
Less water, same Texas cotton
How 'navigational hazards' in metro maps confuse travelers
Clues to treating psychoses in mental health patients
New device could increase battery life of electronics by a hundred-fold
People make different moral choices in imagined versus real-life situations
New technique reveals details of forest fire recovery
Astronomers find fastest-growing black hole known in space
Unusual laser emission from the Ant Nebula
A quantum entanglement between two physically separated ultra-cold atomic clouds
Plug-and-play diagnostic devices
How large can a tsunami be in the Caribbean?
Exercise beats genetics in determining amount of body fat
C'mon get happy: Upbeat songs by female singers dominate the charts, UCI study finds
Tailor-made synthesis of cyclic chemicals by means of enzymes
Mutation protects against Alzheimer's-like disease in mice
Per-capita end-of-life spending is decreasing rapidly, according to new study
Artificial Intelligence improves stroke and dementia diagnosis in most common brain scan
A shipwreck and an 800-year-old 'made in China' label reveal lost history
How electronic health records can benefit clinical trials
Cell type switch helps colon cancer evade treatment, study suggests
Global 2 degrees C rise doubles population exposed to multiple climate risks compared to 1.5 degrees C
Researchers take key step toward growing human organs in laboratory
How humans repress prejudices
World's Strongest bio-material outperforms steel and spider silk
Small birds almost overheat while feeding their young
Scientists' new way to identify microscopic worm attacking coffee crops


Think chimpanzee beds are dirtier than human ones? Think again



Posted: 16 May 2018 02:23 PM PDT


Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) appear to keep tidier sleeping arrangements than humans do. That's one finding of a recent study that evaluated the microbes and arthropods found in the treetop beds that chimpanzees make each night.


The mystery of lime-green lizard blood



Posted: 16 May 2018 02:23 PM PDT


Green blood is one of the most unusual characteristics in the animal kingdom, but it's the hallmark of a group of lizards in New Guinea. The muscles, bones and tongues of these lizards appear bright, lime-green due to high levels of biliverdin, or a green bile pigment, which is toxic and causes jaundice. Surprisingly, these lizards remain healthy with levels of green bile that are 40 times higher than the lethal concentration in humans.


Three gallons of radioactive tank waste vitrified last month



Posted: 16 May 2018 02:23 PM PDT


Approximately three gallons of low-activity Hanford tank waste were vitrified at PNNL's Radiochemical Processing Laboratory in April. The laboratory-scale demonstration is an important step toward the eventual treatment of millions of gallons of hazardous waste generated during past plutonium production at Hanford.


Alternative treatment for mild asthma



Posted: 16 May 2018 02:23 PM PDT


People with mild asthma are often prescribed a daily treatment regimen, but up to 80 per cent do not follow the routine, using inhalers only when they have an asthma attack. Now the researchers have found an as-needed combined-drug inhaler is a viable treatment option.


The opioid epidemic has boosted the number of organs available for transplant



Posted: 16 May 2018 02:22 PM PDT


The researchers examined 17 years of transplantation records and found no significant change in the recipients' chance of survival when the organ donation came from victims of drug intoxication.


Cannabidiol significantly reduces seizures in patients with severe form of epilepsy



Posted: 16 May 2018 02:22 PM PDT


Cannabidiol (CBD), a compound derived from the cannabis plant that does not produce a 'high,' was shown in a new large-scale, randomized, controlled trial to significantly reduce the number of dangerous seizures in patients with a severe form of epilepsy called Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. This study also is the first to offer information on cannabidiol dosing for patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy.


Climate change impacts fragile river ecosystems



Posted: 16 May 2018 02:22 PM PDT


Research undertaken in South Africa's Kruger National Park (KNP) has shown that some of the world's most sensitive and valuable riverine habitats are being destroyed due to an increasing frequency of cyclone-driven extreme floods.


Diverse and abundant megafauna documented at new Atlantic US Marine National Monument



Posted: 16 May 2018 02:22 PM PDT


Airborne marine biologists were dazzled by the diversity and abundance of large, unusual and sometimes endangered marine wildlife on a recent trip to the Northeast Canyons and Seamounts National Marine Monument, about 150 miles southeast of Cape Cod.


Climate change in Quebec equals a much greater diversity of species???



Posted: 16 May 2018 02:22 PM PDT


A team of researchers believe that, paradoxically, climate change may result in Quebec's national and provincial parks becoming biodiversity refuges of continental importance as the variety of species present there increases. They calculated potential changes in the presence of 529 species in about one third of the protected areas in southern Quebec. Their results suggest that fifty -- eighty years from now (between 2071-2100) close to half of the protected regions of southern Quebec may see a species turnover of greater than 80 %.


Major shifts in global freshwater



Posted: 16 May 2018 01:25 PM PDT


A new global, satellite-based study of Earth's freshwater found that Earth's wet areas are getting wetter, while dry areas are getting drier. The data suggest this pattern is due to many factors, including human water management practices, human-caused climate change and natural climate cycles.


Rising emissions of ozone-destroying chemical banned by Montreal Protocol



Posted: 16 May 2018 01:25 PM PDT


Emissions of one of the chemicals most responsible for the Antarctic ozone hole are on the rise, despite an international treaty that required an end to its production in 2010, a new study shows.


Europium points to new suspect in continental mystery



Posted: 16 May 2018 11:48 AM PDT


Clues from some unusual Arizona rocks pointed scientists toward a discovery -- a subtle chemical signature in rocks the world over -- that could answer a long-standing mystery: What stole the iron from Earth's continents?


Scientists predict how 686 marine species' habitats may shift in response to warming seas



Posted: 16 May 2018 11:48 AM PDT


New predictions reveal how global warming may shift the geographic distribution of 686 marine species that inhabit North America's Atlantic and Pacific continental shelves, according to a new study.


Natural regeneration or tree-planting? Study points to bias in forest restoration studies



Posted: 16 May 2018 11:47 AM PDT


At a time when countries are pledging to restore millions of hectares of forest, new research argues that recent studies on forest regeneration techniques are flawed. Sites used to evaluate natural regeneration were secondary growth forests, whereas sites chosen to evaluate artificial regeneration ranged from abandoned coal mines to cattle-trampled fields. Authors of the new study suggest elements of both techniques should be considered, depending on the objectives for a site and its current state.


Early evidence of use of a bit on domestic donkeys found in the Near East



Posted: 16 May 2018 11:46 AM PDT


Donkeys may have worn bits as early as the third millennium BCE, long before the introduction of horses in the ancient Near East, according to a study published May 16, 2018 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Haskel Greenfield from University of Manitoba, Canada, Aren Maeir from Bar-Ilan University, and colleagues.


Novel therapy inhibits complement to preserve neurons and reduce inflammation after stroke



Posted: 16 May 2018 11:46 AM PDT


Researchers report that, after ischemic stroke, the complement system identifies stressed but salvageable neurons for removal by microglial phagocytosis. To preserve these neurons, the investigators designed a novel therapeutic that targets a complement inhibitor to a damage signal expressed after stroke. A single post-stroke injection protected neurons from microglial attack in a preclinical model, reducing neuronal loss.


Whole-tree logging may not hinder plant biodiversity



Posted: 16 May 2018 11:46 AM PDT


When it comes to timber harvesting, removing the whole tree -- from stump to twigs -- doesn't reduce plant diversity any more than old-fashioned logging, which leaves tree branches behind in the woods, new research finds.


Individualized ovarian, brain cancer therapies



Posted: 16 May 2018 10:12 AM PDT


Researchers have discovered that a molecular communication pathway -- thought to be defective in cancer -- is a key player in determining the effectiveness of measles virus oncolytic cancer treatment in ovarian and aggressive brain cancers. This discovery enabled researchers to develop an algorithm to predict treatment effectiveness in individual patients.


Bitcoin estimated to use half a percent of the world's electric energy by end of 2018



Posted: 16 May 2018 10:12 AM PDT


Bitcoin's burgeoning electricity demands have attracted almost as much attention as the cryptocurrency's fluctuating value. But estimating exactly how much electricity the Bitcoin network uses remains a challenge. A new methodology helps pinpoint where Bitcoin's electric energy consumption is headed and how soon it might get there.


Evidence for stars forming just 250 million years after Big Bang



Posted: 16 May 2018 10:12 AM PDT


Astronomers have used observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) to determine that star formation in the very distant galaxy MACS1149-JD1 started at an unexpectedly early stage, only 250 million years after the Big Bang. This discovery also represents the most distant oxygen ever detected in the universe and the most distant galaxy ever observed by ALMA or the VLT.


How the gut influences neurologic disease



Posted: 16 May 2018 10:12 AM PDT


A study sheds new light on the connection between the gut and the brain, untangling the complex interplay that allows the byproducts of microorganisms living in the gut to influence the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.


Exploration of diverse bacteria signals big advance for gene function prediction



Posted: 16 May 2018 10:12 AM PDT


Scientists have developed a workflow that enables large-scale, genome-wide assays of gene importance across many conditions. The study, 'Mutant Phenotypes for Thousands of Bacterial Genes of Unknown Function,' has been published in the journal Nature and is by far the largest functional genomics study of bacteria ever published.


Quarks feel the pressure in the proton



Posted: 16 May 2018 10:12 AM PDT


Inside every proton in every atom in the universe is a pressure cooker environment that surpasses the atom-crushing heart of a neutron star. That's according to the first measurement of a mechanical property of subatomic particles, the pressure distribution inside the proton.


New nuclear RNA retention activity discovered



Posted: 16 May 2018 10:11 AM PDT


Gene expression involves mRNA transport from its place of synthesis to the cytoplasm where protein translation occurs. However, many non-coding RNA species do not follow this flow and new data now demonstrate how cells prevent the unwanted export of RNA and instead ensure nuclear degradation.


An electronic rescue dog



Posted: 16 May 2018 10:11 AM PDT


Scientists have developed the smallest and cheapest ever equipment for detecting people by smell. It could be used in the search for people buried by an earthquake or avalanche.


Researchers control the properties of graphene transistors using pressure



Posted: 16 May 2018 10:11 AM PDT


Researchers have developed a technique to manipulate the electrical conductivity of graphene with compression, bringing the material one step closer to being a viable semiconductor for use in today's electronic devices.


Glass-forming ability: Fundamental understanding leading to smart design



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:37 AM PDT


Researchers studied the glass-forming ability of two simple systems, establishing the 'thermodynamic interface penalty,' which is an indicator of the extent of the structural difference between a crystal and its melt. The fundamental understanding acquired is expected to lead to physics-driven design of glassy materials, allowing for better control and tailoring, and aiding advances in the manufacture of numerous materials including metallic alloys.


A simple software error corrected: Bittersweet chloroplast genome becomes the model



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:37 AM PDT


Information about the organization and evolution of plastomes is crucial to improve crop plants and to resolve the phylogeny of photosynthetic organisms. In a recent study researchers have sequenced the plastid genome of a weed called bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara).


Diagnosing breast cancer with an imaging pill



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:37 AM PDT


For women, mammograms are a sometimes uncomfortable, but necessary, annual ritual. But this procedure doesn't always provide accurate results, and it exposes women to X-rays. In a new study, scientists report that they have developed a non-invasive 'disease screening pill' that can make cancerous tumors light up when exposed to near-infrared light in mice without using radiation.


Beef peptides block bitter tastes



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:37 AM PDT


From burgers to steaks, beef has a long history of being a delicious part of dinner. But what if that pleasant experience of eating beef could extend beyond the dinner plate? Now, one group reports that beef protein, when broken down into peptides, can block bitter taste receptors on the tongue. Such peptides could someday be used to make other foods and even medicines taste better.


Intimacy in later life does not slow memory loss



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:37 AM PDT


Older people who enjoy a sexually active and emotionally close relationship with their partner tend to perform better at memory tests than sexually inactive older adults on a short-term basis, but this is not the case over a longer period of time. This is according to a study using data from more than 6000 adults aged 50 and over.


Wearable technology and AI to predict the onset of health problems



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:37 AM PDT


Researchers found that applying artificial intelligence to the right combination of data retrieved from wearable technology may detect whether your health is failing. The study found that the data from wearable sensors and artificial intelligence that assesses changes in aerobic responses could one day predict whether a person is experiencing the onset of a respiratory or cardiovascular disease.


New research could improve efficiency and luminance of TV and smartphone displays



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:36 AM PDT


Your TV and smartphone could be more efficient and luminescent thanks to new research.


Climate change should help Midwest corn production through 2050



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:36 AM PDT


Contrary to previous analyses, research shows that projected changes in temperature and humidity will not lead to greater water use in corn. This means that while changes in temperatures and humidity trend as they have in the past 50 years, crop yields can not only survive -- but thrive.


Less water, same Texas cotton



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:36 AM PDT


In Texas, the Southern High Plains uses water from an aquifer to water cotton fields. However, the aquifer is running low. Scientists from the area are working to find the best irrigation method for cotton that uses the least water.


How 'navigational hazards' in metro maps confuse travelers



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:36 AM PDT


Some features in metro maps cause passengers to make substantial mistakes in journey planning, but it may be possible to detect and rectify these with automated software, new research has indicated.


Clues to treating psychoses in mental health patients



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:36 AM PDT


Researchers recently found evidence that boosting how well people at risk for psychosis learn from positive and negative feedback could potentially keep psychosis at bay. The team also found that brain scans using functional magnetic resonance imaging, coupled with behavioral measures, could provide markers for the diagnosis of psychosis risk. Researchers hope findings will help mental health professionals to understand how to better treat their patients with psychoses and prevent the onset of psychosis.


New device could increase battery life of electronics by a hundred-fold



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:36 AM PDT


Among the chief complaints for smartphone, laptop and other battery-operated electronics users is that the battery life is too short and -- in some cases -- that the devices generate heat. Now, a group of physicists has developed a device material that can address both issues. The team has applied for a patent for a magnetic material that employs a unique structure -- a 'honeycomb' lattice that exhibits distinctive electronic properties.


People make different moral choices in imagined versus real-life situations



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:35 AM PDT


Researchers often use hypothetical scenarios to understand how people grapple with moral quandaries, but experimental results suggest that these scenarios may not always reflect real-life behavior. The findings showed that people tend to focus more on the outcome of their decision and less on absolute moral principles when faced with a real-life scenario as opposed to a hypothetical scenario.


New technique reveals details of forest fire recovery



Posted: 16 May 2018 09:35 AM PDT


Do you know someone who's so caught up in the details of a problem that they 'can't see the forest for the trees?' Scientists seeking to understand how forests recover from wildfires sometimes have the opposite problem.


Astronomers find fastest-growing black hole known in space



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:52 AM PDT


Astronomers have found the fastest-growing black hole known in the universe, describing it as a monster that devours a mass equivalent to our sun every two days.


Unusual laser emission from the Ant Nebula



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:23 AM PDT


Astronomers have discovered an unusual laser emission that suggests the presence of a double star system hidden at the heart of the 'spectacular' Ant Nebula. The extremely rare phenomenon is connected to the death of a star and was discovered in observations made by European Space Agency's Herschel space observatory.


A quantum entanglement between two physically separated ultra-cold atomic clouds



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:23 AM PDT


Scientists have achieved, in an experiment, quantum entanglement between two ultra-cold atomic ensembles, called Bose-Einstein condensates, spatially separated from each other.


Plug-and-play diagnostic devices



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:23 AM PDT


Researchers have developed modular blocks that can be put together in different ways to produce diagnostic devices. These 'plug-and-play' devices can test blood glucose levels in diabetic patients or detect viral infection, among other functions.


How large can a tsunami be in the Caribbean?



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:23 AM PDT


The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami has researchers reevaluating whether a magnitude 9.0 megathrust earthquake and resulting tsunami might also be a likely risk for the Caribbean region, seismologists report.


Exercise beats genetics in determining amount of body fat



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:23 AM PDT


With obesity now a global epidemic, there is increased focus on risk factors that contribute to weight gain, especially in postmenopausal women. Although many women may blame genetics for their expanding waistlines, a new study shows that as women age they are more likely to overcome genetic predisposition to obesity through exercise.


C'mon get happy: Upbeat songs by female singers dominate the charts, UCI study finds



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:14 AM PDT


Roll over, Beethoven. Elvis Presley too. Female singers with upbeat dance songs are far more likely to make the bestseller music charts, according to new findings. Yet the number of happy songs has declined in recent years, while more negative tunes are increasing.


Tailor-made synthesis of cyclic chemicals by means of enzymes



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:14 AM PDT


Penicillin-based antibiotics contain a five-membered hydrocarbon cycle, additionally incorporating a sulfur and a nitrogen atom. Researchers have now succeeded in selectively synthesizing this important substructure with different residues on this cycle using a biotechnological method.


Mutation protects against Alzheimer's-like disease in mice



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:14 AM PDT


Researchers have discovered a mutation that can protect against Alzheimer's disease in mice. The study found that a specific mutation can reduce the characteristic accumulation of the amyloid-beta peptide that occurs.


Per-capita end-of-life spending is decreasing rapidly, according to new study



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:14 AM PDT


Health economists have long considered end-of-life spending to be one of the major contributors to the overall increase in health spending in the United States. That narrative has been supported by recent research findings that increased use of hospice care costs more than it saves, that end-of-life care intensity has been increasing, and end-of-life intensive care unit has accelerated.


Artificial Intelligence improves stroke and dementia diagnosis in most common brain scan



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:14 AM PDT


Artificial Intelligence improves stroke and dementia diagnosis in commonest form of brain scan.


A shipwreck and an 800-year-old 'made in China' label reveal lost history



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:14 AM PDT


Nearly a thousand years ago, a ship sank in the Java Sea near Indonesia. Cargo recovered from the ocean floor -- including the equivalent to a 'Made in China' label on a piece of pottery -- is helping archaeologists reevaluate when the ship went down and how it fits in with China's history.


How electronic health records can benefit clinical trials



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:14 AM PDT


A new study has indicated that the Secure Anonymized Information Linkage (SAIL) Databank can provide a simple, cost-effective way to follow-up after the completion of randomized controlled trials.


Cell type switch helps colon cancer evade treatment, study suggests



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:14 AM PDT


Researchers have discovered that colon cancers are often resistant to existing drug treatments because they are composed of two different cell types that can replace each other when one cell type is killed. The study suggests that combination therapies targeting both cell types at once may be more effective at treating colorectal cancer, the third highest cause of cancer-related death in the United States.


Global 2 degrees C rise doubles population exposed to multiple climate risks compared to 1.5 degrees C



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:14 AM PDT


New research identifying climate vulnerability hotspots has found that the number of people affected by multiple climate change risks could double if the global temperature rises by 2 degrees C, compared to a rise of 1.5 degrees C.


Researchers take key step toward growing human organs in laboratory



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:14 AM PDT


Researchers have learned that precursor cells for skeletal muscles actually also give rise to neurons, blood vessels, blood cells and immune cells, pushing science one step closer to generating body parts in a laboratory.


How humans repress prejudices



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:14 AM PDT


A philosopher has used psychoanalysis to investigate why people are often not aware of their prejudices. In her accounts, she has been elaborating how prejudices can become unconscious.


World's Strongest bio-material outperforms steel and spider silk



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:14 AM PDT


At DESY's X-ray light source PETRA III, researchers have produced the strongest bio-material that has ever been made. The artificial, but biodegradable cellulose fibers are stronger than steel and even than dragline spider silk, which is usually considered the strongest bio-based material.


Small birds almost overheat while feeding their young



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:14 AM PDT


For decades, researchers have thought that access to food determined the brood size of birds. Now, biologists have discovered a completely new explanation: the body temperature of small birds can increase by more than 4°C to exceed 45°C when they are feeding their young. Larger broods would require more work, resulting in even higher body temperatures -- something the birds would probably not survive.


Scientists' new way to identify microscopic worm attacking coffee crops



Posted: 16 May 2018 07:14 AM PDT


The plants which produce one of the most popular drinks in the world, coffee, are targeted by a microscopic worm, but scientists are fighting back. An underestimated problem in coffee farming, the parasite has been found in soil samples across the coffee growing world thanks to a new and quick detection method.
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