ScienceDaily: Top News

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ScienceDaily: Top News


Research provides insights on World War II naval battle site
Childhood vaccination exemptions rise in parts of the US
Dementia risk increased in 50-year-olds with blood pressure below hypertension threshold
Sleeping too much or not enough may have bad effects on health
Smoking and diabetes linked to brain calcifications
Psychedelic drugs promote neural plasticity in rats and flies
One-third of US adults may unknowingly use medications that can cause depression
Core electron topologies in chemical bonding
A new kind of vaccine based on spider silk
People who deeply grasp pain or happiness of others, process music differently in brain
Beyond the 'Reading Wars': How the science of reading can improve literacy
Troves from a search for new biomarkers: blood-borne RNA
Today's dads are engaging more with their kids
Composition of complex sugars in breast milk may prevent future food allergies
People more likely to trust, cooperate if they can tolerate ambiguity
David vs Goliath: How a small molecule can defeat asthma attacks
New GAIA data reveals mergers in Milky Way
Bacterial enzymes: The biological role of europium
Structural biology: Until the last cut
New technology has bright prospects for understanding plant biodiversity
Scientists unravel molecular mechanisms of Parkinson's disease
Discovery shines light on the mystery of cell death in MS
Block play could improve your child's math skills, executive functioning
Potential new treatment for drug addiction relapse revealed
Mother's attitude to baby during pregnancy may have implications for child's development
The true power of the solar wind
The loss of a parent is the most common cause of brood failure in blue tits
Farmers increasingly relying on agricultural contractors
Physicists discover how to create the thinnest liquid films ever
Protective mechanism against atherosclerosis discovered
How can patients be protected from post-surgery opioid addiction?
Breakthrough in lignin research: Spherical particles multiply enzyme efficiency
Sea urchins see with their feet
Graphene carpets: So neurons communicate better
Researchers map brain of blind patient who can see motion
New optical sensor can determine if molecules are left or right 'handed'
Novel system mimics focus activity of the human eye
Mozart, meditation and a yoga mat: Oncologists welcome integrative therapies for breast cancer
Citizen science: A powerful tool to combat invasive giant slugs
Better physical fitness and lower aortic stiffness key to slower brain aging
AI senses people's pose through walls
Putting animals in their best light: Some shades of LED lamps threaten wildlife
New method can quickly and accurately detect infections
Neutrinos weighed by the world's most precise scale
Physiological benefits may be experienced by veterans with PTSD who use service dogs
Basketball teams playing for survival in critical NBA playoffs are more likely to lose
Urban violence can hurt test scores even for kids who don't experience it
Researchers investigate the correlation between wind and wave height in the Arctic Ocean
Finally, hope for a syphilis vaccine
Multiple lasers could be replaced by a single microcomb
Long periods of viral suppression shown to reduce cancer risk in aging HIV population


Research provides insights on World War II naval battle site



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 05:18 PM PDT


A new study provides precise geographic information for the preservation, long-term research, and future use of a historically important World War II battle site on the seafloor off the coast of Okinawa, Japan.


Childhood vaccination exemptions rise in parts of the US



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 05:18 PM PDT


Non-medical exemptions from childhood vaccinations are rising in some areas of the United States, creating a risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks, argue researchers.


Dementia risk increased in 50-year-olds with blood pressure below hypertension threshold



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 05:18 PM PDT


New findings from the long-running Whitehall II study of over 10,000 civil servants has found 50-year-olds who had blood pressure that was higher than normal but still below the threshold commonly used when deciding to treat the condition, were at increased risk of developing dementia in later life. This increased risk was seen even when the study participants did not have other heart or blood vessel-related problems, according to the research.


Sleeping too much or not enough may have bad effects on health



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 05:18 PM PDT


Fewer than six and more than ten hours of sleep per day are associated with metabolic syndrome and its individual components, according to a new study.


Smoking and diabetes linked to brain calcifications



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:52 PM PDT


People who smoke or have diabetes may be at increased risk of calcifications in a region of the brain crucial to memory, according to a new study.


Psychedelic drugs promote neural plasticity in rats and flies



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:52 PM PDT


Psychedelic drugs may have mind-altering powers in the physical sense, too. A new study has found psychedelics, specifically DOI, DMT, and LSD, can change brain cells in rats and flies, making neurons more likely to branch out and connect with one another. The work supports the theory that psychedelics could help to fight depression, anxiety, addiction, and post-traumatic stress disorder.


One-third of US adults may unknowingly use medications that can cause depression



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:52 PM PDT


A new study suggests that more than one-third of U.S. adults may be using prescription medications that have the potential to cause depression or increase the risk of suicide.


Core electron topologies in chemical bonding



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:51 PM PDT


Researchers resolve the age-old mystery of why silicon cannot replace carbon in organic compounds. A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides for the first time reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. Other elements with a similar propensity as carbon to reshape their core electron nodal structures upon chemical bonding are proposed.


A new kind of vaccine based on spider silk



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:51 PM PDT


In order to strengthen the efficacy of vaccines on the immune system -- and in particular on T lymphocytes, specialized in the detection of cancer cells -- researchers have developed spider silk microcapsules capable of delivering the vaccine directly to the heart of immune cells.


People who deeply grasp pain or happiness of others, process music differently in brain



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:51 PM PDT


People who deeply grasp the pain or happiness of others also process music differently, say researchers. The study in Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience compared MRI scans of low- and high-empathy people. Higher empathy people process music like a pleasurable proxy for a human encounter -- in brain regions for reward and social awareness. The findings may have implications for the function of music now and in our evolutionary past.


Beyond the 'Reading Wars': How the science of reading can improve literacy



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:51 PM PDT


A new scientific report from psychological researchers aims to resolve the so-called 'reading wars,' emphasizing the importance of teaching phonics in establishing fundamental reading skills in early childhood. The report shows how early phonics skills are advanced with a rich reading curriculum throughout the school years.


Troves from a search for new biomarkers: blood-borne RNA



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:51 PM PDT


Scientists have found a new way to trawl blood samples for snippets of RNA released by tumors or diseased organs. The method might eventually help doctors diagnose and track a wide range of medical conditions.


Today's dads are engaging more with their kids



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:51 PM PDT


Whether it's physically being there for a baseball game or piano recital, or emotionally being there to provide warmth or support in a tough time, there appears to be a shift in how fathers are viewing their roles.


Composition of complex sugars in breast milk may prevent future food allergies



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:51 PM PDT


The unique composition of a mother's breastmilk may help to reduce food sensitization in her infant, report researchers. The findings further highlight the health role of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), which are not found in infant formula, and underscore their potential for therapeutic interventions.


People more likely to trust, cooperate if they can tolerate ambiguity



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:51 PM PDT


New research indicates that individuals who are tolerant of ambiguity -- a kind of uncertainty in which the odds of an outcome are unknown -- are more likely to cooperate with and trust other people.


David vs Goliath: How a small molecule can defeat asthma attacks



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:51 PM PDT


Small molecule PM-43I prevented and reversed preexisting allergic airway disease in mice and cleared through the kidneys with no long-term toxicity.


New GAIA data reveals mergers in Milky Way



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:51 PM PDT


University of Groningen astronomers have discovered relics of merger events in the Milky Way halo. Five small groups of stars appear to represent mergers with smaller galaxies, while a big 'blob' comprising hundreds of stars appears to be the remnant of a large merger event. These results were published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters on 12 June.


Bacterial enzymes: The biological role of europium



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:51 PM PDT


Rare earth elements (REEs) are an indispensable component of the digital technologies that are now an integral part of our everyday life. Yet their biological role has been discovered only recently. A few years ago it became apparent that these metals are essential elements for methano- and methylotrophic bacteria. One representative is the bacterium Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV, which was found in a volcanic mudpot near Naples, Italy, and is known to be strictly dependent on REEs such as lanthanum and cerium for its growth.


Structural biology: Until the last cut



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:51 PM PDT


Ribosomes are the cell's protein factories. Researchers have now structurally characterized late stages in the assembly of the human small ribosomal subunit, yielding detailed insights into their maturation principles.


New technology has bright prospects for understanding plant biodiversity



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:51 PM PDT


Biologists get a new look at plant biodiversity and function with new imaging technology.


Scientists unravel molecular mechanisms of Parkinson's disease



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:50 PM PDT


Detailed brain cell analysis has helped researchers uncover new mechanisms thought to underlie Parkinson's disease.


Discovery shines light on the mystery of cell death in MS



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:50 PM PDT


Researchers have discovered a unique process of brain cell death that affects the cells that are most vulnerable in multiple sclerosis (MS). After identifying the process called pyroptosis, or fiery death, the researchers were able to block the enzyme in the brain that is responsible for it, using a drug that could potentially treat MS.


Block play could improve your child's math skills, executive functioning



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 03:50 PM PDT


Semi-structured block play among preschool-age children has the potential to improve two skills - mathematics and executive functioning - critical to kindergarten readiness, according a new study.


Potential new treatment for drug addiction relapse revealed



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 07:58 AM PDT


Research reveals a new potential mechanism for combating drug addiction relapse.


Mother's attitude to baby during pregnancy may have implications for child's development



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 07:57 AM PDT


Mothers who 'connect' with their baby during pregnancy are more likely to interact in a more positive way with their infant after it is born, according to a new study. Interaction is important for helping infants learn and develop.


The true power of the solar wind



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 07:57 AM PDT


The planets and moons of our solar system are continuously being bombarded by particles from the sun. On the Moon or on Mercury, the uppermost layer of rock is gradually eroded by the impact of sun particles. New results show that previous models of this process are incomplete. The effects of solar wind bombardment are much more drastic than previously thought.


The loss of a parent is the most common cause of brood failure in blue tits



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 07:57 AM PDT


Complete brood failure in blue tits is almost always associated with the sudden and permanent disappearance of one of the parents. Scientists show in their study that the remaining parent substantially increased its effort to raise at least some of the chicks, which turned out to be successful in two thirds of the nests.


Farmers increasingly relying on agricultural contractors



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 07:57 AM PDT


More farmers are relying on external companies to carry out major work, new research shows.


Physicists discover how to create the thinnest liquid films ever



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 07:57 AM PDT


Physicists have discovered a fundamentally new way surfaces can get wet. Their study may allow scientists to create the thinnest films of liquid ever made -- and engineer a new class of surface coatings and lubricants just a few atoms thick.


Protective mechanism against atherosclerosis discovered



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 07:57 AM PDT


Immune cells promoting inflammation play a crucial role in the development of atherosclerosis. Scientists showed that a survival factor for those cells has also anti-inflammatory functions and a protective role in atherosclerosis. The study, published in Circulation, provides valuable new insight for atherosclerosis research and suggests a hitherto unknown, inherited risk factor for atherosclerosis.


How can patients be protected from post-surgery opioid addiction?



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 07:57 AM PDT


Greater coordination is needed between surgeons and physicians about the prescription of pain-relieving opioid drugs following surgery to help identify patients who are at risk of becoming opioid addicts.


Breakthrough in lignin research: Spherical particles multiply enzyme efficiency



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 07:57 AM PDT


Lignin, a pulp industry by-product, could replace fossil materials.


Sea urchins see with their feet



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 07:57 AM PDT


Sea urchins lack eyes, but can see with their tentacle-like tube feet instead, previous research has indicated. Now, researchers have tested their vision in a new study, and shown that while sea urchins have fairly low resolution vision -- it is good enough to fulfill their basic needs.


Graphene carpets: So neurons communicate better



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 07:57 AM PDT


Scientists have experimentally observed the phenomenon of ion 'trapping' by graphene carpets and its effect on the communication between neurons. The researchers have observed an increase in the activity of nerve cells grown on a single layer of graphene. Combining theoretical and experimental approaches they have shown that the phenomenon is due to the ability of the material to 'trap' several ions present in the surrounding environment on its surface, modulating its composition.


Researchers map brain of blind patient who can see motion



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 07:57 AM PDT


Since the visual processing centres of her brain went dark after a stroke, a Scottish woman has been unable to see objects. However, she has developed the remarkable ability to see objects in motion, neuroscientists at Western University in Canada have discovered.


New optical sensor can determine if molecules are left or right 'handed'



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 07:57 AM PDT


A team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality -- a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties.


Novel system mimics focus activity of the human eye



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 07:57 AM PDT


A new computational system effectively mimics the natural way the human eye corrects focus, specifically while viewing objects that are closer rather than farther away.


Mozart, meditation and a yoga mat: Oncologists welcome integrative therapies for breast cancer



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 06:21 AM PDT


A breast cancer patient dealing with anxiety, depression or mood swings could soon be encouraged by her oncologist to learn meditation techniques, join a yoga class or put music to therapeutic use.


Citizen science: A powerful tool to combat invasive giant slugs



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 06:21 AM PDT


With the help of citizen science, researchers have unraveled the close correlation between weather conditions and the appearances of a giant slug species, enabling them to predict the slug's activity on the following day.


Better physical fitness and lower aortic stiffness key to slower brain aging



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 06:21 AM PDT


The rate of decline in certain aspects of memory may be explained by a combination of overall physical fitness and the stiffness of the central arteries.


AI senses people's pose through walls



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 06:07 AM PDT


A new wireless smart-home system could help detect and monitor disease and enable the elderly to 'age in place.'


Putting animals in their best light: Some shades of LED lamps threaten wildlife



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 06:06 AM PDT


A research team identifies harmful effects to wildlife as LED lights proliferate. Some hues, including blues and whites, imperil creatures while other wavelengths are more benign. They devised an interactive web-based tool to help people make wildlife-friendly choices in outdoor lighting.


New method can quickly and accurately detect infections



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 06:06 AM PDT


Two chemistry researchers have developed a method that can show quickly and accurately whether a person has been infected with harmful bacteria or other pathogens. Additionally, this new method shows the exact severity of infection in a person.


Neutrinos weighed by the world's most precise scale



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 05:36 AM PDT


What is the mass of neutrinos? To answer one of the most fundamental and important open questions in modern particle physics and cosmology, the KATRIN Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Ex-periment was designed and built.


Physiological benefits may be experienced by veterans with PTSD who use service dogs



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 05:36 AM PDT


A new study shows how veterans with PTSD may benefit physiologically from using service dogs. This study used a physiological marker to define the biobehavioral effects of service dogs on veterans with PTSD.


Basketball teams playing for survival in critical NBA playoffs are more likely to lose



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 05:00 AM PDT


A new study finds that basketball teams playing for survival in critical NBA playoff games are more likely to lose. This study is the first to illustrate 'choking' in a real-world team sports environment. The results suggest that 'choking' is a common phenomenon in high-stakes situations and may be applicable to a variety of high-pressure performance situations, including those found in the workplace.


Urban violence can hurt test scores even for kids who don't experience it



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 05:00 AM PDT


Children who attend school with many kids from violent neighborhoods can earn significantly lower test scores than peers with classmates from safer areas.


Researchers investigate the correlation between wind and wave height in the Arctic Ocean



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 05:00 AM PDT


An international research team has found an increase in high waves and winds in the ice-free waters of the Arctic Ocean, a potentially dangerous navigational tipping point for the 'new and unusual' state of the waters.


Finally, hope for a syphilis vaccine



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 05:00 AM PDT


Despite efforts to eradicate it, syphilis is on the rise. It is the second leading cause of stillbirth and miscarriage worldwide, and if left untreated it can cause strokes, dementia, and other neurological disease. Until now, most health agencies focused on treating infected people and their sex partners -- but new discoveries may make a vaccine possible.


Multiple lasers could be replaced by a single microcomb



Posted: 12 Jun 2018 05:00 AM PDT


Every time we send an e-mail, a tweet, or stream a video, we rely on laser light to transfer digital information over a complex network of optical fibers. Dozens of high-performance lasers are needed to fill up the bandwidth and to squeeze in an increasing amount of digital data. Researchers have now shown that all these lasers can be replaced by a single device called a microcomb.


Long periods of viral suppression shown to reduce cancer risk in aging HIV population



Posted: 11 Jun 2018 02:24 PM PDT


Early, sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART), which results in long-term viral suppression, helps to prevent AIDS-defining cancers and also non-AIDS-defining cancers, to a lesser degree. However, patients with long-term viral suppression still had excess cancer risk compared to uninfected patients.
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