ScienceDaily: Top News

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ScienceDaily: Top News


The Lancet Global Health: 1 in 7 babies worldwide born with a low birthweight
Hunting responsible for mammal declines in half of intact tropical forests
Genomic collision may explain why many kidney transplants fail
Helping robots remember: Hyperdimensional computing theory could change the way AI works
What's causing your vertigo? Goggles may help with diagnosis
From Earth's deep mantle, scientists find a new way volcanoes form
First smartphone app that can hear ear infections in children
A new way of diagnosing and treating disease -- without cutting skin
New AI sees like a human, filling in the blanks
Calling attention to gender bias dramatically changes course evaluations
How cancer drug inhibits DNA repair in cancer cells
Ancient fish ponds in the Bolivian savanna supported human settlement
Scientific reproducibility does not equate to scientific truth, mathematical model finds
Young adults distressed by labels of narcissism, entitlement
Jawless fish take a bite out of the blood-brain barrier
Experimental brain-controlled hearing aid decodes, identifies who you want to hear
Captive chimpanzees spontaneously use tools to excavate underground food
Neanderthals and modern humans diverged at least 800,000 years ago, research on teeth shows
Do you trust politicians? Depends on how you define trust
New drug could help treat neonatal seizures
How climate change will affect the rural northeast: Expect three weeks of heat
Cellular rivalry promotes healthy skin development
Memories are strengthened via brainwaves produced during sleep, new study shows
Coherent? Voice disorders significantly affect listeners, too
Virutally energy-free superfast computing invented by scientists using light pulses
How egg cells choose their best powerhouses to pass on
A new way to wind the development clock of cardiac muscle cells
New strategy of reprogramming regulatory T cells may improve cancer therapies
Mapping microbial symbioses in forests
Quantum cloud computing with self-check
'Striking' differences in rates of HIV/AIDS within African nations
Brain stimulation improves working memory in adults
What are the neurological side effects of CAR T-cell therapy?
Blood biopsy: New technique enables detailed genetic analysis of cancer cells
As bumblebee diets narrow, ours could too
Enhanced anticancer compound may allow precise activation and tracking of treatment
Opioid-exposed newborns may react to pain differently after birth
Why lymphoma patients may become resistant to specific therapy
Framework improves 'continual learning' for artificial intelligence
Iceland volcano eruption in 1783-84 did not spawn extreme heat wave
Twitter image colors and content could help identify users with depression, anxiety
Ragweed compounds could protect nerve cells from Alzheimer's
New insights on the control of dicamba-resistant kochia
Over-fed bacteria make people sick
Legal marijuana reduces chronic pain, but increases injuries and car accidents
New surface treatment could improve refrigeration efficiency
Machine learning predicts mechanical properties of porous materials
Feeling healthy: A good start, but not always a good indicator of heart disease risk
What artificial intelligence can teach us about proteins
Robot therapists need rules
Researchers block protein that plays a key role in Alzheimer's disease
Researchers identify faster, more effective drug combinations to treat tuberculosis
Enzyme PHLPP2 could be a viable drug target for treating prostate cancer
Molecular basis of brain dysfunction and embryo malformation associated with thalidomide
New doctors' DNA ages six times faster than normal in first year
How ocean melts Antarctic Ice Sheet
Combination therapy advisable for bowel disorder IBS
For-profit dialysis provider charges private insurers 4 times more than government payers
Unprecedented weakening of Asian summer monsoon
On the way to fighting staph infections with the body's immune system


The Lancet Global Health: 1 in 7 babies worldwide born with a low birthweight



Posted: 15 May 2019 04:46 PM PDT


More than 20 million babies were born with a low birthweight (less than 2500g; 5.5 pounds) in 2015 -- around one in seven of all births worldwide. Almost three-quarters of these babies were born in Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, where data are most limited.


Hunting responsible for mammal declines in half of intact tropical forests



Posted: 15 May 2019 02:54 PM PDT


A new study predicts that even where deforestation has not been detected in the tropcis, hunting is reducing populations of large mammals by 40 percent on average, largely due to increased human accessibility to these remote areas.


Genomic collision may explain why many kidney transplants fail



Posted: 15 May 2019 02:54 PM PDT


Up to one in seven kidney donors and recipients may have a type of genetic incompatibility that leads to organ rejection, researchers have found.


Helping robots remember: Hyperdimensional computing theory could change the way AI works



Posted: 15 May 2019 01:54 PM PDT


A new article introduces a new way of combining perception and motor commands using the so-called hyperdimensional computing theory, which could fundamentally alter and improve the basic artificial intelligence (AI) task of sensorimotor representation -- how agents like robots translate what they sense into what they do.


What's causing your vertigo? Goggles may help with diagnosis



Posted: 15 May 2019 01:54 PM PDT


Vertigo is a form of severe dizziness that can result in a loss of balance, a feeling of falling, trouble walking or standing, or nausea. There is more than one type of vertigo, each with a different cause, and sometimes requiring different treatment. Now a proof-of-concept study has found that special goggles that measure eye movements during an episode of vertigo may help more accurately diagnose which type of vertigo a person has.


From Earth's deep mantle, scientists find a new way volcanoes form



Posted: 15 May 2019 11:40 AM PDT


Far below Bermuda's pink sand beaches and turquoise tides, geoscientists have discovered the first direct evidence that material from deep within Earth's mantle transition zone -- a layer rich in water, crystals and melted rock -- can percolate to the surface to form volcanoes.


First smartphone app that can hear ear infections in children



Posted: 15 May 2019 11:40 AM PDT


Researchers have created a new smartphone app that can detect fluid behind the eardrum by simply using a piece of paper and a smartphone's microphone and speaker.


A new way of diagnosing and treating disease -- without cutting skin



Posted: 15 May 2019 11:40 AM PDT


Researchers have developed a specialized microscope that has the potential ability to both diagnose diseases that include skin cancer and perform incredibly precise surgery -- all without cutting skin.


New AI sees like a human, filling in the blanks



Posted: 15 May 2019 11:40 AM PDT


Computer scientists have taught an artificial intelligence agent how to do something that usually only humans can do -- take a few quick glimpses around and infer its whole environment, a skill necessary for the development of effective search-and-rescue robots that one day can improve the effectiveness of dangerous missions.


Calling attention to gender bias dramatically changes course evaluations



Posted: 15 May 2019 11:40 AM PDT


With growing evidence of gender bias on student course evaluations, a new intervention may help reduce bias against women instructors. Researchers added language aimed at making students aware of potential biases, which yielded significantly higher scores for women instructors.


How cancer drug inhibits DNA repair in cancer cells



Posted: 15 May 2019 11:40 AM PDT


A cancer drug thought to be of limited use possesses a superpower of sorts: It is able to stop certain cancer cells from repairing their DNA in order to survive.


Ancient fish ponds in the Bolivian savanna supported human settlement



Posted: 15 May 2019 11:40 AM PDT


A network of fish ponds supported a permanent human settlement in the seasonal drylands of Bolivia more than one thousand years ago, according to a new study.


Scientific reproducibility does not equate to scientific truth, mathematical model finds



Posted: 15 May 2019 11:40 AM PDT


Reproducible scientific results are not always true and true scientific results are not always reproducible, according to a mathematical model.


Young adults distressed by labels of narcissism, entitlement



Posted: 15 May 2019 11:40 AM PDT


Young adults both believe and react negatively to messages that members of their age group are more entitled and narcissistic than other living generations, suggests new research.


Jawless fish take a bite out of the blood-brain barrier



Posted: 15 May 2019 11:40 AM PDT


A jawless parasitic fish could help lead the way to more effective treatments for multiple brain ailments, including cancer, trauma and stroke. Researchers borrowed molecules from the immune system of the parasitic sea lamprey to deliver anti-cancer drugs directly to brain tumors.


Experimental brain-controlled hearing aid decodes, identifies who you want to hear



Posted: 15 May 2019 11:40 AM PDT


Our brains have a remarkable knack for picking out individual voices in a noisy environment, like a crowded coffee shop or a busy city street. This is something that even the most advanced hearing aids struggle to do. But now engineers are announcing an experimental technology that mimics the brain's natural aptitude for detecting and amplifying any one voice from many.


Captive chimpanzees spontaneously use tools to excavate underground food



Posted: 15 May 2019 11:39 AM PDT


Chimpanzees in captivity can successfully work out how to use tools to excavate underground food, even if they've never been presented with an underground food scenario before, according to a new study.


Neanderthals and modern humans diverged at least 800,000 years ago, research on teeth shows



Posted: 15 May 2019 11:39 AM PDT


Neanderthals and modern humans diverged at least 800,000 years ago, substantially earlier than indicated by most DNA-based estimates, according to new research.


Do you trust politicians? Depends on how you define trust



Posted: 15 May 2019 11:39 AM PDT


For decades, political scientists have measured the public's trust in the federal government consistently, using measures that are largely unchanged since the 1960s -- despite the momentous changes happening over the last five decades in the United States. The new research tested a definition of trust and revealed three assessments that lead to one trusting in the government.


New drug could help treat neonatal seizures



Posted: 15 May 2019 10:51 AM PDT


A new drug that inhibits neonatal seizures in rodent models could open up new avenues for the treatment of epilepsy in human newborns.


How climate change will affect the rural northeast: Expect three weeks of heat



Posted: 15 May 2019 10:41 AM PDT


While extreme cold and snow often make headlines in the Northeast United States, by 2060, there will be far more record heat. Imagine the most sweltering day of the year.


Cellular rivalry promotes healthy skin development



Posted: 15 May 2019 10:17 AM PDT


Scientists have discovered a curious phenomenon taking place in mouse skin: cells compete with one another for the chance to develop into mature tissue. The findings indicate that this antagonism is key to creating healthy skin.


Memories are strengthened via brainwaves produced during sleep, new study shows



Posted: 15 May 2019 10:17 AM PDT


New research brings us closer to understanding how learned information turns into reliable memories during sleep.


Coherent? Voice disorders significantly affect listeners, too



Posted: 15 May 2019 10:17 AM PDT


Researchers conducted a study to see if there are differences in speech intelligibility (a listener's ability to recover a speaker's message) in healthy voices compared to those who have voice disorders like hoarseness. They also wanted to know if using listener strategies such as paying close attention to the words or using other words to try to figure out the message would increase speech intelligibility.


Virutally energy-free superfast computing invented by scientists using light pulses



Posted: 15 May 2019 10:17 AM PDT


A new invention uses magnets to record computer data which consume virtually zero energy, solving the dilemma of how to create faster data processing speeds without high energy costs.


How egg cells choose their best powerhouses to pass on



Posted: 15 May 2019 10:17 AM PDT


Developing egg cells conduct tests to select the healthiest of their energy-making machines to be passed to the next generation.


A new way to wind the development clock of cardiac muscle cells



Posted: 15 May 2019 10:17 AM PDT


A study published in the journal Stem Cells describes a new and unexpected way to accelerate the maturation of induced pluripotent stem cells into cardiac muscle cells.


New strategy of reprogramming regulatory T cells may improve cancer therapies



Posted: 15 May 2019 10:17 AM PDT


Therapies that harness the power of the immune system against cancer have made remarkable progress against certain tumors but still remain ineffective in most cancer patients. A new study describes a method of reprogramming regulatory T cells that usually suppress immune responses into inflammatory cells that not only permit but also intensify an antitumor immune response.


Mapping microbial symbioses in forests



Posted: 15 May 2019 10:17 AM PDT


Data collected from over 1 million forest plots reveals patterns of where plant roots form symbiotic relationships with fungi and bacteria.


Quantum cloud computing with self-check



Posted: 15 May 2019 10:17 AM PDT


With a quantum coprocessor in the cloud, physicists have opened the door to the simulation of previously unsolvable problems in chemistry, materials research or high-energy physics. In a new study, researchers report how they simulated particle physics phenomena on 20 quantum bits and how the quantum simulator self-verified the result for the first time.


'Striking' differences in rates of HIV/AIDS within African nations



Posted: 15 May 2019 10:17 AM PDT


Despite the rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) since 2000, HIV/AIDS is still the most common cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa, according to data from the Global Burden of Disease.


Brain stimulation improves working memory in adults



Posted: 15 May 2019 10:02 AM PDT


Magnetic stimulation of the brain improves working memory, offering a new potential avenue of therapy for individuals living with Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.


What are the neurological side effects of CAR T-cell therapy?



Posted: 15 May 2019 10:02 AM PDT


A team recently cataloged the neurological symptoms of patients who had received CAR T-cell therapy to better understand its neurotoxic side effects. While neurological symptoms were prevalent -- 77 percent of patients experienced at least one symptom -- they were also temporary.


Blood biopsy: New technique enables detailed genetic analysis of cancer cells



Posted: 15 May 2019 10:02 AM PDT


A new way to cleanly separate out cancer cells from a blood sample enables comprehensive genetic profiling of the cancer cells, which could help doctors target tumors and monitor treatments more effectively.


As bumblebee diets narrow, ours could too



Posted: 15 May 2019 10:02 AM PDT


A new study reveals the loss of plant diversity harms the humble bumblebee at a critical stage in its development from egg to adult.


Enhanced anticancer compound may allow precise activation and tracking of treatment



Posted: 15 May 2019 10:02 AM PDT


Researchers have advanced a novel compound that specifically targets the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response that is frequently hyperactivated in cancer and promotes survival of cancer cells during stressful conditions.


Opioid-exposed newborns may react to pain differently after birth



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:58 AM PDT


Babies exposed to opioids while their mothers were pregnant with them may need special care even before they start to experience withdrawal symptoms, according to new research.


Why lymphoma patients may become resistant to specific therapy



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:58 AM PDT


Researchers have discovered a mechanism of drug resistance to Venetoclax®, also known as ABT-199, a BCL-2 targeting drug commonly used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia. Their findings also suggest a possible co-treatment strategy to overcome this resistance.


Framework improves 'continual learning' for artificial intelligence



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:58 AM PDT


Researchers have developed a new framework for deep neural networks that allows artificial intelligence (AI) systems to better learn new tasks while 'forgetting' less of what it has learned regarding previous tasks. The researchers have also demonstrated that using the framework to learn a new task can make the AI better at performing previous tasks, a phenomenon called backward transfer.


Iceland volcano eruption in 1783-84 did not spawn extreme heat wave



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:58 AM PDT


An enormous volcanic eruption on Iceland in 1783-84 did not cause an extreme summer heat wave in Europe. But, as Benjamin Franklin speculated, the eruption triggered an unusually cold winter, according to a new study. The study will help improve predictions of how the climate will respond to future high-latitude volcanic eruptions.


Twitter image colors and content could help identify users with depression, anxiety



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:58 AM PDT


A new study shows users who score high on a depression and anxiety survey often post photos that are less aesthetically appealing, less vivid in color or display little depth of field.


Ragweed compounds could protect nerve cells from Alzheimer's



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:03 AM PDT


As spring arrives in the northern hemisphere, many people are cursing ragweed, a primary culprit in seasonal allergies. But scientists might have discovered a promising new use for some substances produced by the pesky weed. Researchers have identified and characterized ragweed compounds that could help nerve cells survive in the presence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) peptides.


New insights on the control of dicamba-resistant kochia



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:03 AM PDT


Kochia is a highly invasive weed that is common in the Great Plains, where it has developed resistance to multiple herbicides. Now new dicamba-resistant strains are adding to grower worries.


Over-fed bacteria make people sick



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:03 AM PDT


In a new hypothesis, a CRC 1182 research team suggests that inflammatory diseases are caused by an over-supply of food, and the associated disturbance of the intestine's natural bacterial colonization.


Legal marijuana reduces chronic pain, but increases injuries and car accidents



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:03 AM PDT


The legalization of recreational marijuana is associated with an increase in its abuse, injury due to overdoses, and car accidents, but does not significantly change health care use overall, according to a new study.


New surface treatment could improve refrigeration efficiency



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:03 AM PDT


Unlike water, liquid refrigerants and other fluids that have a low surface tension tend to spread quickly into a sheet when they come into contact with a surface. But for many industrial process it would be better if the fluids formed droplets, which could roll or fall off the surface and carry heat away with them. Now, researchers have made significant progress in promoting droplet formation and shedding in such fluids.


Machine learning predicts mechanical properties of porous materials



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:03 AM PDT


Machine learning can be used to predict the properties of a group of materials which, according to some, could be as important to the 21st century as plastics were to the 20th.


Feeling healthy: A good start, but not always a good indicator of heart disease risk



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:03 AM PDT


Most people feel they have a general idea of how healthy they are based on their diet and exercise regimen and how often they get sick. But a new study adds to evidence that how healthy people think they are isn't always an accurate indicator of their risk for cardiovascular disease.


What artificial intelligence can teach us about proteins



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:03 AM PDT


Proteins are vital parts of all living organisms and perform essential tasks in our bodies. They build and repair tissues, supply components of the immune and hormone systems, regulate metabolism, and transmit signals. Researchers have now developed an intelligent neural network that can predict the functions of proteins in the human body. The team used a 'trick' to observe how the network makes it predictions. The insights gained from this research could help in the search for new targeted drugs.


Robot therapists need rules



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:03 AM PDT


Interactions with artificial intelligence (AI) will become an increasingly common aspect of our lives. A team has now completed the first study of how 'embodied AI' can help treat mental illness. Their conclusion: Important ethical questions of this technology remain unanswered. There is urgent need for action on the part of governments, professional associations and researchers.


Researchers block protein that plays a key role in Alzheimer's disease



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:03 AM PDT


In recent years, it has become increasingly clear to researchers that the protein galectin-3 is involved in inflammatory diseases in the brain. A study now shows the de facto key role played by the protein in Alzheimer's disease. When the researchers shut off the gene that produces this protein in mice, the amount of Alzheimer's plaque and the inflammatory load both decreased.


Researchers identify faster, more effective drug combinations to treat tuberculosis



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:03 AM PDT


A new study describes a way to reduce the duration of tuberculosis treatment by using an approach called 'artificial intelligence-parabolic response surface' that allows researchers to quickly identify three or four drug combinations among billions of possible combinations to treat TB up to five times faster than current therapies.


Enzyme PHLPP2 could be a viable drug target for treating prostate cancer



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:03 AM PDT


Researchers propose a new druggable target that can put a damper on the spread of prostate cancer. Containing the threat at its origin organ greatly increases the survival rates of patients who suffer from the disease.


Molecular basis of brain dysfunction and embryo malformation associated with thalidomide



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:03 AM PDT


Scientists have identified the molecule involved in thalidomide-related dysfunctions associated with in utero brain and organ development. Their in vivo results using a zebrafish model of mammalian development showed that thalidomide binds to a protein named cereblon, a subunit of an enzyme complex responsible for the creation of neurons, thereby inhibiting normal brain development. Their results suggest this protein as a possible therapeutic target for regulating abnormal brain development.


New doctors' DNA ages six times faster than normal in first year



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:03 AM PDT


Every summer, tens of thousands of newly minted doctors start the most intense year of their training: the first year of residency, also called the intern year. A new study suggests that the experience will make their DNA age six times faster than normal. And the effect will be largest among those whose training programs demand the longest hours.


How ocean melts Antarctic Ice Sheet



Posted: 15 May 2019 08:03 AM PDT


An innovative use of instruments that measure the ocean near Antarctica has helped scientists to get a clearer picture of how the ocean is melting the Antarctic ice sheet. Until now, most measurements in Antarctica were made during summer, leaving winter conditions, when the sea freezes over with ice, largely unknown.


Combination therapy advisable for bowel disorder IBS



Posted: 15 May 2019 07:21 AM PDT


The more abnormalities in intestinal and brain function that IBS sufferers have, the more severe their symptoms of this functional bowel disorder, and the more adversely their everyday life is affected. This is shown by a study indicating that patients with IBS should get treatments for different abnormalities simultaneously, to improve both bowel function and signaling from the brain to the gut.


For-profit dialysis provider charges private insurers 4 times more than government payers



Posted: 15 May 2019 07:21 AM PDT


Private insurers covering people receiving treatment for dialysis paid four times more than government insurance programs such as Medicare paid for the same service. Government programs paid, on average, $248 per dialysis session, compared with $1,041 per session for people with private insurance.


Unprecedented weakening of Asian summer monsoon



Posted: 15 May 2019 07:21 AM PDT


Rainfall from the Asian summer monsoon has been decreasing over the past 80 years, a decline unprecedented in the last 448 years, according to a new study.


On the way to fighting staph infections with the body's immune system



Posted: 15 May 2019 06:36 AM PDT


Researchers identify exact cells mediating the mouse's defense against Staphylococcus infection (MRSA).
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